Criminology Midterm.txt

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Criminology Midterm.txt
2013-10-12 22:24:27

Criminology Midterm
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  1. Property Crimes
    • larceny-theft
    • motor vehicle theft
    • fraud
  2. Larceny
    unlawful taking, carrying, leading, or riding away of property from the possession of another
  3. Grand Larceny
    stolen money or goods of greater value (felony)
  4. Petit Larceny
    small amount of money or property (misdemeanor)
  5. Booster
    a shoplifter who steals and resells the stolen merchandise
  6. Snitch
    a shoplifter who steals for their own consumption
  7. Public Order Crimes
    • criminal acts that deviate from society's general ideas of normal social behavior and moral values
    • "victimless/consensual crimes"
  8. Burglary
    unlawful entry in order to commit a crime
  9. Marketer
    a person who burglarizes and offers the product for sale
  10. Fencer
    a person who buys the stolen property from a burglar
  11. Robbery
    inflicts or threatens to inflict serious bodily injury upon another while in the course of committing a theft
  12. Violent Crimes
    aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder, robbery
  13. Assault
    attempted or threatened offensive touching
  14. Simple Assault
    minor bodily harm
  15. Aggravated Assault
    • serious bodily harm
    • usually with a weapon
  16. Battery
    offensive touching
  17. Rape
    penetration, no matter how slight, of the vagina or anus with any body part or object, or oral penetration by a sex organ of another person, without the consent of the victim
  18. Statutory Rape
    forms of sexual penetration committed against a person under the age of consent
  19. Criminal Homicide
    unlawful killing of one human being by another (purposely, knowingly, recklessly, or negligently)
  20. Expressive Motivation
    emotional states in which the offender strikes out spontaneously
  21. Instrumental Motivation
    the offender is driven by will to achieve a predetermined goal
  22. Causation
    a relationship where one variable causes a change in another
  23. Correlation
    relationships between variables in which they vary together
  24. Theory
    an explanation of a happening/circumstance of two or more factors that is based on observation, experimentation, and reasoning
  25. Hypothesis
    a possible explanation for an observed occurrence that can be tested by further investigation
  26. Scientific Method
    • 1) Observation
    • 2) Hypothesis
    • 3) Test
    • 4) Verification
    • 5) Theory
    • 6) Prediction
  27. Macrotheory
    social structure, more abstract
  28. Bridging Theory
    middle ground between macro and micro theories
  29. Microtheory
    individual, least abstract
  30. Unit Theory
    focus on one phenomenon, testable
  31. Metatheory
    focus on perception of reality, rarely testable
  32. Social Context
    the events and beliefs of the times
  33. Intellectual Context
    the books, mentors, and influences important to the theories
  34. Hedonism
    human behavior is guided by pleasure-seeking and pain avoidance
  35. Social Contract
    • individual bound to society only by his/her consent
    • people are responsible to each other
    • individual surrenders to the state only the limited rights necessary to ensure protection of all citizens
  36. Utilitarianism
    greatest good for the greatest number
  37. Cesare Beccaria
    • punishment exceeding what is necessary to protect public is unjust
    • don't punish just to punish
  38. Jeremy Bentham
    • greatest good for the greatest number (economic model)
    • let the punishment fit the crime (proportionality)
  39. Hedonistic Calculus
    • Jeremy Bentham
    • pleasure/pain principle - criminals calculate their gain and behave accordingly
  40. Deterrence Theory
    • assumes individuals will act in their own interest unless restrained - deterrence is that restraint
    • Elements: celerity (speed of punishment), certainty (likelihood of being caught), severity (degree of punishment)
  41. August Comte
    • founder of positivist philosophy and sociology
    • developed a scientific method of study
  42. Cesare Lombroso
    • father of positivist criminology
    • 3 Pre-Darwinian Theories (craniometry, phrenology, physiognomy)
    • atavism
    • stigmata
    • determinism
  43. Atavism
    • Cesare Lombroso
    • humans devolved rather than evolved
  44. Lombroso's Stigmata
    • atavistic physical stigmata
    • asymmetrical face, large monkey-like ears, large lips,…
  45. Determinism
    • Cesare Lombroso
    • human behavior is determined by factors beyond free will and free choice
  46. H. H. Goddard
    • authority on use/interpretation on IQ (innate)
    • labeled low IQ - feeblemindedness
    • morons --> imbeciles --> idiots
    • morons are the biggest threat because they are the closest to normal
  47. Eugenics
    • H. H. Goddard
    • improving genetic quality in humans
  48. Sheldon
    • Body Type Theory - associating body types with human temperament types
    • endomorphs - jolly, lazy (thick)
    • mesomorphs - risk takers, aggressive (muscular, fit)
    • ectomorph - nervous, introverted (thin)
  49. MPA
    medial physical assessment
  50. Symbolic Interaction
    we all interact with symbols
  51. Ecological Theory
    • derived from organic approach to city
    • mapping of social problems
  52. Concentric Zones
    • concept is developed from ecological theory
    • zone 1 - central business district
    • zone 2 - zone of transition
    • zone 3 - workingmen's houses
    • zone 4 - better residences
    • zone 5 - commuter's residences
  53. Cultural Transmission Theory
    • Shaw & McKay
    • juvenile in socially disorganized areas have greater exposure to and opportunity for delinquency and crime
  54. Culture Conflict
    • Primary: individual from one culture moves into another culture
    • Secondary: subculture within dominant culture
  55. Social Disorganization
    • neighborhood ecological characteristics
    • allows crime and delinquency
  56. Media and Crime (Images)
    • 1) A mistaken image of the amount of crime
    • 2) Created an image that crime rates have increased consistently
    • 3) Distorts the incidence of nonviolent crimes
  57. Media and Crime (Framing)
    • 1) Episodically - isolated stories
    • 2) Thematically - focuses on themes in terms of causes and remedies (i.e. poverty, drugs, identity theft)
    • 3) Failure of the criminal justice system
  58. Media and Crime (Understanding Crime)
    • 1) News Value - violations of norms, good vs. evil, victims should be vulnerable and blameless
    • 2) Organizational Needs - mass media are for-profit enterprises
    • 3) Reliance on Official Sources - authoritative figures
  59. Typology Approach of Crime
    • Understand how criminologists categorize criminals and criminal events
    • Definitional Parameters - not bound by law
    • Crime Types - violent, property, sexual, white collar, and public order
    • Crime Rates determined by taking the number of crimes committed and dividing by the population at risk
    • Violent Crimes - aggravated assault, forcible rape, murder, robbery
    • Property Crime - arson, burglary, larceny, motor vehicle theft
  60. Aspects of a Criminal Event
    • every criminal event consists of an offender, a victim (a target), and a setting
    • 4 Principles - Behavioral, Cognitive, Cultural, Societal
  61. Behavioral Aspects
    • actus reus and mens reas
    • skills and techniques used by offenders
    • patterned criminal transactions
  62. Cognitive Aspects
    • thoughts and cognition that underlie behavior
    • motivation and planning
    • normative neutralization
  63. Cultural Aspects
    • criminal subculture
    • loners and peers
    • socialization script
  64. Societal Reaction
    • Formal Reaction - institutional responses
    • Informal Reaction - reaction from audiences