head and neck

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head and neck
2013-10-13 19:06:14
head neck

head and neck
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  1. depression of mandible
    platysma, myohyoid, geniohyoid, digastric
  2. elevation of mandible
    temporalis, medial pterygoid, masseter
  3. protrusion of mandible
    lateral and medial pterygoids
  4. retraction mandible
    posterior fibres termporalis, deep part masseter, geniohyoid, digastric
  5. branches of facial nerve
    temporal, zygomatic, buccal, marginal mandibular, cervical
  6. branches of V1
    frontal (supraorbital), lacrimal, nasociliary (external nasal)
  7. branches of V2
    infraorbital, zygomatic
  8. branches of V3
    buccal, lingual, inferior alveolar (mental), auriculotemporal
  9. path of V1
    trigeminal nerve emerges from pons, trigeminal ganglion lateral to sella turcica on sphenoid bone divides, V1 through superior orbital fissure into orbit
  10. path of V2
    trigeminal nerve emerges from pons, trigeminal ganglion lateral to sella turcica on sphenoid bone divides, V2 enters foramen rotundum and emerges into orbit through inferior orbital fissure
  11. path of V3
    trigeminal nerve emerges from pons, trigeminal ganglion lateral to sella turcica on sphenoid bone divides, V3 through foramen ovale and emerges on medial surface of zygomatic bone
  12. branches of external carotid artery
    superior thyroid, ascending pharyngeal, lingual, facial, occiptal, posterior auricular, superficial temporal, maxillary
  13. branches of internal carotid artery
    goes straight to circle of willis, giving off only occipital (supraorbital) and inferior hypophyseal arteries
  14. tribituaries of the internal jugular vein
    facial vein, opthalmic vein, cavernous sinus, pterygoid plexus
  15. nerves responsible for somatic sensation of head
    trigeminal and cervical plexus (great auricular nerve c2-3)
  16. strap muscles (infrahyoid) of neck from superficial to deep
    omohyoid, sternohyoid, thyrohyoid, sternohyoid
  17. purpose of strap muscles
    stabilise hyoid bone so that suprahyoid bones can manipulate jaw AND move hyoid/larynx during swallowing
  18. innervation of strap muscles
    cervical plexus (c1-4)
  19. somatic sensory innervation of jaw and back of ear
    great auricular nerve from c2-3, cervical plexus (c1-4)
  20. deep muscle for forward flexion of neck
    scalenes anterior which goes from transverse processes of cervical vertebrae to anterior aspect of first rib
  21. deep muscle for lateral flexion of neck
    scalenes medius which goes from transverse processes of cervical vertebrae to posterior aspect of first rib
  22. cervical plexus location
    from spinal nerves c1-c4 via intervertebral foramina and emerge from in between scalenes anterior and medius
  23. pretracheal fascia contents
    trachea, thyroid, parathyroids, esophagus
  24. carotid sheath contents
    common carotid inferiorly and inferior carotid superiorly, internal jugular vein, vagus nerve
  25. lymphatic drainage of anterior face
    submandibular -> deep cervical
  26. lymphatic drainage of lateral face
    parotid -> deep cervical
  27. lymphatic drainage of lower lip and chin
    submental -> deep cervical
  28. characteristics of cervical vertebrae
    • small elongated vertebral body
    • extra foramina on each side: transverse foramina carrying the vertebral arteries (branches of subclavian)
    • large triangular vertebral canal
    • short and bifid spinous process
  29. muscle that tenses vocal cord (producing higher pitch)
    cricothyroid muscle (CT), innervated by external laryngeal nerve (vagus) runs from anterolateral cricoid to inferior margin of thyroid; stretches and tenses the vocal fold
  30. muscle that relaxes vocal fold (producing lower pitch)
    thyroarytenoid (TA), innervated by recurrent laryngeal nerve (vagus) runs from posterior surface of thyroid cartilage to arytenoids
  31. muscle that closes rima glottidis
    • lateral cricoarytenoid (LCA), innervated by recurrent laryngeal nerve (vagus), runs from side of arytenoid cartilage to lateral arch of cricothyroid - adducts vocal folds
    • transverse (TRA) and oblique (OBA) arytenoids, both innervated by recurrent laryngeal nerve and running between the posterior aspects of the arytenoids
  32. muscles that open rima glottidis
    posterior cricoarytenoid (PCA), innervated by recurrent laryngeal nerve and running from arytenoids down to posterior surface of cricoid - abducts vocal folds
  33. muscles that close laryngeal aditus for swallowing
    aryepiglottic muscle, a continuation of the oblique arytenoids, which is innervated by recurrent laryngeal nerve and runs from arytenoid along opening of aditus
  34. layers of muscles from superficial to deep from chin to tongue and their innervations
    posterior belly of digastric (CNVII), mylohyoid (CNV3), geniohyoid (C1 via CNXII), genioglossus (CNXII - in palsy, no longer extends tongue out, increasing risk of choking)
  35. chorda tympani origin, course and target
    emerges from pontomedullary junction with CNVII as nervus intermedius with axons from NTS (taste) and superior salivary nucleus (visceral motor), divides from NI at the geniculate ganglion and joins the lingual nerve (branch of V3) to supply the tongue (anterior 2/3 taste) and sublingual, submandibular (secretomotor)
  36. what are tarsal plates of the eye?
    dense fibrous tissue bands which strengthen the eyelids with embedded tarsal glands which prevent complete evaporation of the tear film
  37. muscle that opens eyelids and innervation
    levator palpebrae superioris innervated by CNIII
  38. part of cortex for initiating movement
    laterally precentral gyrus and medially anterior part of paracentral lobule (frontal lobe)
  39. part of cortex for receiving sensory input
    laterally postcentral gyrus and medially posterior part of paracentral lobule (parietal lobe)
  40. part of cortex for expression of language
    Broca's area, opercula and triangular parts of inferior frontal gyrus
  41. part of cortex for reception of language
    Wernicke's area (an auditory association area) posterior part of inferior wall of lateral sulcus and adjacent posterior part of superior temporal gyrus
  42. part of cortex for interpretation of language
    angular gyrus which surrounds posterior extension of superior temporal sulcus
  43. part of cortex for receiving visual input
    within the walls of calcarine sulcus (occipital lobe)
  44. part of cortex for receiving hearing input
    tranverse temporal gyrus inside the lateral fissure
  45. part of cortex for receiving olfactory input
    uncus, inferior medial temporal lobe anterior to parahippocampal gyrus
  46. fissure separating left and right hemispheres
    median longitudinal fissure which contains falx cerebri
  47. fissure separating cerebrum from cerebellum
    transverse fissure, which contains tentorium cerebelli
  48. components of diencephalon
    pineal gland, thalamus, hypothalamus and pituitary
  49. name of white matter branches in cerebellum
    arbor vitae
  50. four major cisterns
    • cistern = enlargement of subarachnoid space
    • cerebellomedullary cistern (cisterna magna - between medullar and cerebellum posteriorly)
    • superior cistern (between midbrain and cerbellum posteriorly)
    • interpeduncular cistern (between cerebral peduncles anteriorly)
    • pontine cistern (in front of pons)
  51. part of cortex for learning and memory
    parahippocampal gyrus on inferior medial aspect of temporal lobe
  52. white matter tract connecting Broca's and Wernicke's areas
    arcuate fasciculus
  53. part of brain associated with spatial representation
  54. functions of non dominant hemisphere
    • brocas - prosody (monotonous voice)
    • parietal - spatial awareness, "left neglect"
    • musical, artistic abilities
  55. functions of insula lobe
    • visceral sensation (taste and smell)
    • vestibular representation
    • emotional processing of music
  56. function of spinocerebellar tract
    posture and movement of trunk and limbs
  57. function of cerebrocerebellar tract
    planning movement
  58. function of vestibulocerebellar tract
    balance, head and eye movements