Psych Midterm 1

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Psych Midterm 1
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  1. Research participants who carefully observe and report their immediate thoughts and feelings in response to different musical sounds are using the method known as
    introspection
  2. The growth potential of healthy people was emphasized by
    humanistic psychology.
  3. In studying human behavior, contemporary psychologists rely most heavily on
    science.
  4. The controversy over the relative contributions of genes and experience on psychological traits is known as the
    nature-nurture issue.
  5. Angie wonders whether her calm and relaxed personality style was learned or inherited. Angie's concern is most directly relevant to the issue of
    nature versus nurture.
  6. Charles Darwin suggested that the evolution of living organisms is guided by
    natural selection.
  7. Do psychological differences between men and women result from biological influences or social influences? This question most clearly involves a debate over the issue of
    nature versus nurture.
  8. A biopsychosocial approach is one that requires the use of
    multiple levels of analysis.
  9. An integrated understanding of how mental processes are affected by and affect both social and biological influences is most clearly provided by
    a biopsychosocial approach.
  10. Poor nutrition, family stress, and memory difficulties have all contributed to Mr. Leonard's depression. Effectively explaining the full complexity of his problems requires
    a biopsychosocial approach.
  11. Which perspective is most directly concerned with how the physical properties of the brain influence behavior and mental states?
    neuroscience
  12. In a class lecture, Professor Hampton emphasized the extent to which abnormal blood chemistry can contribute to psychological disorders. The professor's lecture highlighted a ________ perspective on psychological disorders.
    social-cultural
  13. The evolutionary perspective focuses on the impact of ________ on human traits
    natural selection
  14. Mark believes that people's dislike of bitter-tasting foods has promoted human survival. His belief best illustrates the ________ perspective.
    evolutionary
  15. Which psychological perspective highlights the manner in which people encode, process, store, and retrieve information?
    cognitive
  16. A clinical psychologist who explains behavior in terms of unconscious drives and conflicts is employing a(n) ________ perspective.
    psychodynamic
  17. A concern with the reasoning processes that contribute to effective problem solving is most characteristic of the ________ perspective.
    cognitive
  18. Which psychological perspective is most likely to examine how group membership influences individual attitudes and behaviors?
    social-cultural
  19. Dr. Matias has concluded that very few people in a small African country suffer from alcohol dependence because of the strong influence of their religion. This belief best illustrates a(n) ________ perspective.
    social-cultural
  20. Dr. Winkle conducts basic research on the systematic changes in intelligence associated with aging. It is most likely that Dr. Winkle is a(n) ________ psychologist
    developmental
  21. Dr. Karima conducts basic research on the relative effectiveness of massed practice and spaced practice on a person's ability to remember information. Dr. Karima is most likely a ________ psychologist.
    cognitive
  22. Dr. Wilcox conducts basic research on the behavioral differences between introverted and extraverted people. Dr. Wilcox is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.
    personality
  23. Dr. Veenstra conducts basic research on the impact of racial prejudice on behavior. Dr. Veenstra is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist.
    social
  24. Dr. Ochoa develops tests to accurately identify the most qualified job applicants in a large manufacturing firm. Which psychological specialty does Dr. Ochoa's work best represent?
    industrial/organizational psychology
  25. Which professional specialty focuses on the diagnosis and treatment of people with psychological disorders?
    clinical psychology
  26. Working in a community mental health center, Dr. Thatcher treats adults who suffer from severe depression. Dr. Thatcher is most likely a(n) ________ psychologist
    clinical
  27. Which specialists are the most likely to prescribe a drug for the treatment of a psychological disorder?
    psychiatrists
  28. The SQ3R method encourages students to
    survey a text chapter's organization before actually reading the chapter itself.
  29. For effective mastery of course material, the text emphasizes the value of
    all of those answers.
  30. Hindsight bias leads people to perceive research findings as
    unsurprising.
  31. Alexandra is told that research supports the value of cosmetic surgery for boosting self-esteem. Belinda is told that the esteem-enhancing value of cosmetic surgery has been refuted by research. Both women consider the research findings to be common sense. This best illustrates the power of
    hindsight bias
  32. Dr. Donelian wants to reduce his students' perception that psychological experiments merely document the obvious. His best strategy would be to ask the students to
    predict the outcomes of experiments before they are told the actual results.
  33. As students prepare for a test, they often believe that they understand the course material better than they actually do. This best illustrates
    overconfidence
  34. Which of the following is most likely to inhibit critical thinking?
    overconfidence
  35. As scientists, psychologists adopt an attitude of skepticism because they believe that
    claims about human behavior need to be supported with evidence.
  36. Critical thinkers can best be described as
    questioning.
  37. An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events is called a(n)
    theory
  38. Hypotheses are best described as
    predictions
  39. A statement describing how a researcher manipulates an independent variable is known as a(n)
    control condition.
  40. In reporting the effect of drinking alcohol onself-consciousness, psychological researchers would specify exactly how they measured self-consciousness. They are thereby providing a(n)
    operational definition
  41. Replication involves
    repeating an earlier research study
  42. To verify their liability of a new scientific finding, psychological researchers are most likely to engage in
    replication.
  43. To better understand how brain malfunctions influence behavior, Dr. Mosher extensively and carefully observes and questions two stroke victims. Which research method is Dr. Mosher using?
    the case study
  44. The survey is a research method in which
    a representative, random sample of individuals are questioned regarding their attitude or behaviors.
  45. Which of the following techniques would be the most effective way of investigating the relationship between the political attitudes and the economic status of North Americans?
    the survey
  46. A majority of respondents in a national survey agreed that “classroom prayer should not be allowed in public schools.” Only 33 percent of respondents in a similar survey agreed that “classroom prayer in public schools should be banned.” These differing findings best illustrate the importance of
    wording effects
  47. Researchers observe random samples because they are likely to be
    representative
  48. The whole group from which samples may be drawn is called a(n)
    population
  49. To describe the behavior of animals in their native habitats, researchers are most likely to make use of
    naturalistic observation
  50. Which research method would be most effective for identifying the mating rituals of North American deer?
    naturalistic observation
  51. A correlation coefficient is a statistical measure of the
    extent to which two factors vary together
  52. A scatterplot graphically depicts the
    degree of relationship between two variables
  53. If university graduates typically earn more money than highschool graduates, this would indicate that level of education and income are
    positively correlated
  54. Which of the following correlations expresses the strongest degree of relationship between two variables?
    -0.67
  55. Following the scientific discovery that a specific brain structure is significantly larger in violent individuals than in those who are nonviolent, a news headline announced: “Enlarged Brain Structure Triggers Violent Acts.” The headline writer should most clearly be warned about the dangers of
    confusing association with causation
  56. If someone were to flip a coin six times, which of the following sequences of heads(H) and tails(T) would be most likely?
    All of these sequences would be equally likely
  57. A research method in which an investigator manipulates factors that potentially produce a particular behavior is called a(n)
    experiment
  58. The experiment is a research method in which
    an investigator manipulates one or more variables that might affect behavior.
  59. In a drug-treatment study, participants given a pill containing no actual drug are receiving a
    placebo.
  60. To minimize the extent to which placebo effects contribute to outcome differences between experimental and control groups in a drug-treatment study, researchers are likely to make use of
    the double-blind procedure.
  61. Abdul has volunteered to participate in an experiment evaluating the effectiveness of aspirin. Neither he nor the experimenters know whether the pills he takes during the experiment contain aspirin or are merely placebos. The investigators are apparently making use of
    the double-blind procedure
  62. In a test of the effects of cigarette smoking on physical health and development, groups of monkeys were raised in either a smoke-free or smoke-infested environment. Monkeys in the smoke-infested environment were assigned to the _______ group.
    experimental
  63. The dependent variable is an experiment is the factor
    that may be influenced by the experimental treatment
  64. In an experimental study of the extent to which sexual arousal is stimulated by laughter, sexual arousal would be the
    dependent variable
  65. Six different students spent $10, $13, $2, $12, $13, and $4, respectively, on entertainment. The mode of this group's entertainment expenditures is
    $13
  66. During the past month, Henri and Sylvia each ate 10 candy bars, while Jerry ate 8, Tricia ate 6, and Tahli ate only 1.The mean number of candy bars eaten by these individuals was
    7.
  67. The range is
    the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
  68. The standard deviation is a measure of
    central tendency
  69. Statistical significance refers to whether research
    results add support to previous findings.
  70. Ethical principles developed by the American Psychological Association and the British Psychological Society urge psychological investigators to
    ensure that research participants give informed consent before participating in the research.
  71. The nineteenth-century theory that bumps on the skull reveal a person's abilities and traits is called
    phrenology
  72. Because neural communication occurs within the context of both cultural influences and individual mental processes, people are best understood as
    biopsychosocial system
  73. The branching extensions of nerve cells that receive incoming signals from sensory receptors or from other neurons are called the
    dendrites
  74. The part of a neuron that transmits neural messages to other neurons or to muscles or glands is called the
    axon
  75. Which part of a neuron is often encased by a fatty myelin sheath?
    axon
  76. The slow down of neural communication in multiple sclerosis involves a degeneration of the
    myelin sheath
  77. The pain of child birth is most likely to be reduced by the release of
    endorphins
  78. Recording electrodes are placed directly on the scalp to produce a(n)
    EEG
  79. A brain lesion refers to ________ of brain tissue.
    destruction
  80. Which technique involves the use of magnetic fields and radio waves to produce computer generated images of the brain's soft tissues?
    MRI
  81. Which region of the human brain best distinguishes us from other animals?
    cerebral cortex
  82. Which region of the cerebral cortex lie at the back of the head and receive visual information?
    occipital lobes
  83. An area at the rear of the frontal lobes that controls voluntary movements is called the
    motor cortex.
  84. To trigger a person's hand to make a fist, José Delgado stimulated the individual's
    motor cortex.
  85. If a neurosurgeon directly stimulated parts of your sensory cortex, which of the following would you most likely experience?
    a sense of being touched
  86. Damage to the association areas in the frontal lobe is most likely to interfere with the ability to
    formulate plans
  87. Phineas Gage underwent a dramatic personality change after a tamping iron inflicted massive damage to his ________ lobes.
    frontal
  88. One stroke patient was put to work cleaning tables, with his good arm and hand restrained. Slowly, the bad arm recovered its skills. He gradually learned to write again and even to play tennis. This best illustrates the value of
    plasticity.
  89. Visual information processing in the temporal lobe of Deaf people whose native language is sign best illustrates
    plasticity.
  90. Information is most quickly transmitted from one cerebral hemisphere to the other by the
    corpus callosum.
  91. The left cerebral hemisphere is typically superior to the right in
    speech production.
  92. Neurotransmitters are chemical messengers that travel across the
    synaptic gap.
  93. Behaviorism encouraged psychologists to ignore the study of
    consciousness
  94. After 1960, the study of consciousness had been revived by psychologists' renewed interest in
    mental processes
  95. The interdisciplinary study of brain activity linked with our mental processes is known as
    cognitive neuroscience
  96. Reacting to visual stimulation that we do not consciously perceive illustrates
    dual processing
  97. A large amount of our mental activity occurs outside our awareness thanks to our capacity for
    dual processing
  98. You typically fail to consciously perceive that your own nose is in your line of vision. This best illustrates
    selective attention
  99. Felix was so preoccupied with his girlfriend's good looks that he failed to perceive any of her less admirable characteristics. This best illustrates the dangers of
    selective attention.
  100. Because she was listening to the news on the radio, Mrs. Schultz didn't perceive a word her husband was saying. Her experience best illustrates
    selective attention
  101. When Jason briefly turned to summon the waiter, his wife quickly switched her glass of red wine with his glass of white wine. Jason's failure to notice that his chosen wine had been replaced best illustrates
    change blindness.
  102. After four years of working nights, Raymond now works days. His present difficulty in getting to sleep at night is most likely due to a disruption of his normal
    circadian rhythm
  103. Cindi prefers to take exams in the late afternoon rather than during the morning, because her energy level and ability to concentrate are better at that time. Her experience most likely reflects the influence of the
    circadian rhythm
  104. Which of the following typically occur(s) during REM sleep?
    genital arousal
  105. After Carlos had been asleep for about an hour and a half, his heart began to beat faster, his breathing became fast and irregular, and his closed eyes began to dart back and forth. Carlos was most likely experiencing
    REM sleep
  106. When allowed to sleep 9 hours a night on a regular basis, people are most likely to
    work more efficiently.
  107. Margie insists that she never dreams, but her roommate feels she can prove otherwise. To prove that Margie does dream, the roommate should
    wake Margie after 5 minutes of REM sleep and ask her what she's dreaming.
  108. Chronic sleep debt is most likely to promote
    obesity.
  109. Chronic sleep loss is likely to
    inhibit creativity and impair memory.
  110. Insomnia is a disorder involving
    recurring difficulty in falling or staying asleep.
  111. Sleep apnea is disorder involving
    temporary cessations of breathing during sleep.
  112. Which sleep disorder is more likely to be experienced by children than by adults?
    sleep apnea
  113. About three hours after he falls asleep, Bobby often sits up in bed screaming incoherently. His mother tries to awaken him, but with no success. The next morning, he remembers nothing. It appears that Bobby suffers from
    night terrors
  114. When dreamers' faces were lightly sprayed with cold water, they were more likely than other dreamers to experience
    dreams about water
  115. According to Freud, the manifest content of a dream refers to the
    remembered story line of a dream
  116. According to Freud, the personally threatening and censored meaning of a dream is its
    latent content.
  117. As a participant in a sleep-research study for the past three nights, Tim has been repeatedly disturbed during REM sleep. Tonight, when allowed to sleep undisturbed, Tim will likely experience
    An increase in REM sleep.
  118. External influences on development such as social support are said to constitute our
    environment.
  119. The nucleus of your body cells contains
    all of these elements.
  120. The threadlike structures in the cell nucleus are called
    chromosomes.
  121. The complete set of genetic instructions in an organism's chromosomes is called the
    genome.
  122. Fraternal twins originate from the fertilization of
    two egg cells by two sperm cells.
  123. Twin studies suggest that a strong influence on emotional instability comes from
    genetic predispositions.
  124. Compared with identical twins, fraternal twins are
    less likely to be the same sex and less likely to be similar in extraversion
  125. Studies of identical twins who had been reared apart has most clearly increased scientific appreciation for the importance of ________ in personality development.
    genetic influences
  126. The best reason to be cautious about attributing all the personality similarities of separated twins to genetic factors is that
    adoption agencies tend to place separated twins in similar homes.
  127. Identical twins separated at birth and raised in completely different cultures would be most likely to have similar
    temperaments
  128. Adoptive parents are most likely to influence the ________ of their adopted children
    political attitudes
  129. Temperament is an individual's characteristic level of
    emotional reactivity
  130. Lynnae is usually timid and fearful, whereas her sister Eileen is typically relaxed and cheerful. The two sisters are most strikingly different in
    temperament
  131. Those who inappropriately attribute children's troubling personality traits to inadequate parental nurture should be reminded of the importance of
    genetic predispositions
  132. A researcher who assesses the heritability of intelligence is most likely a(n)
    behavior geneticist
  133. Our selective exposure to those life experiences that are best suited to our unique temperaments best illustrates the interaction of
    nature and nurture
  134. Pinpointing genes that put people at risk for genetically influenced disorders such as depression and schizophrenia best illustrates the goals of
    evolutionary psychologists
  135. Compared with men, women are more likely to talk with others to
    explore relationships
  136. A baby girl receives a(n)
    X chromosome from her father and mother.
  137. The prenatal development of the external male sex organs is stimulated by
    testosterone
  138. A genetically female child who receives excess testosterone during prenatal growth is subsequently likely to develop
    more aggressive behavior patterns than most girls.
  139. A person's sense of being male or female is his or her gender
    identity
  140. Sets of expected behaviors for males and for females are called
    gender roles
  141. The tendency to classify various occupations as masculine or feminine has often led men and women to limit themselves to an unnecessarily restricted range of career options. This best illustrates the impact of
    gender schemas
  142. Children's tendency to classify toys and songs as either masculine or feminine is most likely to facilitate the process of
    gender typing
  143. By insisting that humans are “nothing but” products of nature and nurture, we run the greatest risk of undermining
    individual responsiblity
  144. An integrated understanding of gender differences in behavior in terms of gender norms, sex-related hormones, and individual expectations regarding gender-appropriate behavior is most clearly provided by
    A biopsychosocial approach
  145. The branch of psychology that systematically focuses on the physical, cognitive, and social changes that occur throughout the life cycle is called
    developmental psychology
  146. A fertilized egg is called a(n)
    zygote
  147. From 2 weeks to 8 weeks after conception, the human organism is known as a(n)
    embryo
  148. Newborn infants typically prefer their mother's voice over their father's voice because
    they become familiar with their mother's voice before they are born
  149. Harmful chemicals or viruses that can be transferred from a mother to her developing fetus are called
    teratogens
  150. The symptoms of fetal alcohol syndrome demonstrate that alcohol is a
    teratogen
  151. Three-month-old Andrew was obviously startled by the first ring of the telephone, but with each subsequent ring he seemed to become less reactive. This best illustrates the process of
    habituation
  152. Excess neural connections in the brain's association areas are reduced through a process of
    pruning
  153. Biological growth processes that are relatively uninfluenced by experience and that enable orderly changes in behavior are referred to as
    maturation
  154. Putting babies to sleep on their backs to reduce the risk of crib death has been associated with a slight delay in children's
    crawling.
  155. Identical twins typically begin walking on nearly the same day. The best illustrates the importance of _______ to motor skills.
    maturation.
  156. Three-year-olds who experienced a fire evacuation caused by a burning popcorn maker were unable to remember the cause of this vivid event when they were 10-year-olds. This best illustrates
    infantile amnesia.
  157. A concept or framework that organizes and interprets information is called a(n)
    schema.
  158. According to Piaget, assimilation involves
    interpreting new experiences in terms of one's current understanding.
  159. Adjusting current schemas to make sense of new information is called
    accommodation.
  160. The awareness that things continue to exist even when they are not perceived is known as
    object permanence.
  161. The discovery that 5-month-old infants stare longer at numerically impossible outcomes suggests that Piaget
    underestimated the cognitive capacities of infants
  162. According to Piaget, children in the preoperational stage are able to
    understand the world only by observing the consequences of their own actions.
  163. A tendency to exaggerate the extent to which our own opinions are shared by others best illustrates
    egocentrism
  164. Children's ability to infer other people's intentions and feelings is indicative of their emerging
    theory of mind
  165. Autism is a disorder characterized by deficient social interaction and an impaired
    theory of mind.
  166. Gilbert notices that his sausage is sliced into six pieces, whereas his brother's is sliced into nine pieces. He understands, however, that his brother's sausage is not actually any larger than his own. This indicates that Gilbert has by now reached the ________ stage of development.
    concrete operational
  167. The Harlows' studies of infant monkeys raised with artificial mothers suggest that body contact promotes
    attachment.
  168. Infant monkeys raised with a nourishing wire mother and a nonnourishing cloth mother
    preferred the nonourishing cloth mother
  169. The process by which certain birds form attachments during a critical period very early in life is called
    imprinting
  170. A mother who consistently responds supportively to her infant's cries for care and protection is most likely to encourage
    secure attachment.
  171. Research indicates that most abusive parents report that they themselves were
    battered or neglected as children
  172. Dmitri is a typical 6-month-old. When he looks into a mirror he is likely to
    reach toward the image as if it were another child
  173. Researchers have sneakily dabbed rouge on young children's noses in order to study the developmental beginnings of
    self-awareness
  174. Two characteristics of authoritative parents are that they provide children with
    clear behavior expectations and demonstrate high levels of parental responsiveness.
  175. The Albertsons establish and enforce rules for their children to follow. They give reasons for the rules and invite their teenagers to join in the discussion when new rules are being made. Psychologists would characterize the Albertsons as ________ parents.
    authoritative
  176. Nonreproductive sexual characteristics such as the deepened male voice and male facial hair are called
    secondary sex characteristic
  177. The speed of neurotransmission in the frontal lobe increases during adolescence due to the growth of
    myelin.
  178. Vincent's ability to reason hypothetically in his geometry class indicates that he is in the ________ stage of development.
    formal operation
  179. According to Kohlberg, morality based on a desire to uphold the laws of society is characteristic of the ________ stage.
    conventional
  180. Adolescents and their parents are most likely to have disagreements regarding
    homework
  181. Compared with 40 years ago, in the United States today people are likely to
    marry for the first time at a later age
  182. The deterioration of memory and thinking caused by ailments such as Alzheimer's disease or a series of small strokes is called
    dementia.
  183. An irreversible brain disorder marked by a deterioration of one's normal reasoning and memory skills is called
    Alzheimer's disease.
  184. In which research method are the same people retested over a period of years?
    longitudinal
  185. The idea that adult intelligence declines with age has been challenged most effectively by
    longitudinal research
  186. Older adults outperformed younger adults in their responses to New York Times crossword puzzles. The superior performance of these older adults best illustrates the value of
    crystallized intelligence.
  187. Professor Appledorn emphasizes that whether people flourish in later life depends on a continuous interaction among their inborn temperaments, their personal relationships, and their mental expectations regarding the aging process. The professor’s viewpoint best illustrates
    a biopsychosocial approach.
  188. The grief experienced over the death of a loved one is especially severe when death is experienced
    as coming before it's expected time on the social clock.
  189. Questions about the extent to which maladaptive habits learned in childhood can be overcome in adulthood are most directly relevant to the issue of
    stability or change
  190. As boys with explosive tempers grow older, they are especially likely to have difficulty maintaining good jobs and happy marriages. This fact is most relevant to the issue of
    stability or change
  191. Human personality shows the greatest stability during
    adulthood.

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