MCIM 326 L8 regulation

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Scottygo
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240286
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MCIM 326 L8 regulation
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2013-10-13 02:09:46
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MCIM 326 L8 regulation
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MCIM 326 L8 regulation
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  1. PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE
    FRUCTOSE-6-P ––> FDP

    INHIBITED BY PEP

    ACTIVATED BY ADP
  2. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE
    PYRUVATE ––> ACETYL-CoA

    INHIBITED BY Acetyl-CoA.
  3. NADP MALIC ENZYME
    MALATE ––> PYRUVATE

    INHIBITED BY ACETYL-CoA
  4. PEP CARBOXYLASE
    PEP + CO2 ––> OAA + Pi

    INHIBITED BY ASPARTATE.
  5. CITRATE SYNTHASE .
    OAA + Ac-Coa ––> CITRATE

    INHIBITED BY -KETOGLUTARATE
  6. ADP GLUCOSE PYROPHOSPHORYLASE
    GLUCOSE-1-P ––> ADP-GLUCOSE––> GLYCOGEN

    ACTIVATED BY FDP AND BY PEP

    INHIBITED BY AMP
  7. HI LEVELS OF FDP AND PEP INDICATE WHAT?
    How does this effect regulation?
    GLYCOLYTIC INTERMEDIATES ARE ABUNDANT AND SOME MAY BE STORED AS GLYCOGEN (ENERGY STORAGE).

    They both act as activators for conversion of glucose to glycogen
  8. PTWO PYRUVATE KINASES:
    PEP + ADP ––> PYRUVATE + ATP

    ONE ACTIVATED BY FDP AND ONE ACTIVATED BY RIBOSE-5-P.
  9. WHAT HAPPENS IF GLYCOLYTIC AND PENTOSE-PPATHWAY INTERMEDIATES ARE ABUNDANT?
    How does this effect regulation?
    PYRUVATE KINASES ARE ACTIVATED TO SYNTHESIZE MORE Ac-CoA FOR LIPID SYNTHESIS AND FOR KREBSCYCLE.

    FDP and Ribose-5-P both activate a Pyruvate Kinase
  10. IF ASPARTATE IS ABUNDANT:
    • NAD MALIC ENZYME IS ACTIVATED TO PRODUCE MORE ACETYL-CoA FOR LIPIDSYNTHESIS AND FOR KREBSCYCLE.
    • -malate>pyruvate>acetyl-CoA
  11. ADP GLUCOSEPYROPHOSPHORYLASE
    regulation
    INHIBITED BY AMP
  12. WHEN IS GLYCOGEN SYNTHESIS (ENERGYSTORAGE)  INHIBITED?
    WHEN ENERGY LEVELS ARE LOW
  13. PHOSPHOFRUCTOKINASE (AND. GLYCOLYSIS) ARE ACTIVATED
    BY ADP (A LOW ENERGY SIGNAL).
  14. FRUCTOSE DIPHOSPHATASE, A GLUCONEOGENIC ENZYME
    regulation
    INHIBITED BY AMP (A LOW ENERGY SIGNAL).
  15. WHY DOES AMP ACTIVATE PYRUVATE KINASE WHEN ENERGY LEVELS ARE LOW?
    TO SEND MORE ACETYL-CoA TO THE KREBS CYCLE (AN ENERGY PRODUCING PATHWAY).
  16. CITRATE SYNTHASE
    regulation
    INHIBITED BY ATP

    INHIBITED BY NADH
  17. Ribose 5 phosphate includes ___ in its structure
    What confusion does this cause?
    • AMP
    • IT IS NOT CLEARWHETHER AMP, RIBOSE-5-P OR BOTH MOLECULES ARE THE SIGNIFICANT REGULATOR(S).
  18. REDUCING POWER (___,___ AND ___) ARE MAJOR PRODUCTS OF THE KREBS CYCLE.
    • NADH
    • NADPH
    • FADH
  19. PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE,
    regulation
    INHIBITED BY NADH
  20. NADP MALIC ENZYME
    regulation
    INHIBITED BY NADH
  21. WHAT REACTIONS DOES NADH INHIBIT?
    for what purpose?
    • PYRUVATE DEHYDROGENASE,
    • NADP MALIC ENZYME AND
    • CITRATE SYNTHASE

    TO SLOW PRODUCTION OF EXCESS REDUCING POWER BY THE KREBSCYCLE.
  22. HOW IS IDH PHOSPHATASE INACTIVATED?
    phosphorylation
  23. IDH PHOSPHATASE _____ IDH WHEN PRECURSORS OF THE KREBS CYCLE (3-P-GLYCERATE AND PYRUVATE) ARE PRESENT
    DEPHOSPHORYLATES (ACTIVATES)
  24. IDH KINASE _____ IDH WHENPRECURSORS OF THE KREBS CYCLE ARE ABSENT.(3-P-GLYCERATE AND PYRUVATE)
    PHOSPHORYLATES (INACTIVATES)
  25. AMP (LOW ENERGY) ____ PHOSPHATASE AND ___ KINASE TO ACTIVATE IDH AND KREBS CYCLE.
    • ACTIVATES
    • INACTIVATES
  26. WHAT PRECURSORS OF THE KREBS CYCLE ARE NECESSARY FOR DEPHOSPHORYLATION (ACTIVATION) OF IDH?
    3-P-GLYCERATEAND PYRUVATE
  27. High concentration of glucose has what effect on cAMP and Gene transcription?
    Both decrease
  28. What strictly gluconeogenic reactions are not required when glucose is present?
    • FRUCTOSE DIPHOSPHATASE
    • FDP ––> FRUCTOSE-6-P + Pi

    • PEP SYNTHASE
    • PYRUVATE + ATP ––> PEP + AMP +Pi

    •  PEP CARBOXYKINASE
    • OAA + ATP ––> PEP + ADP + CO2.

    • -KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE
    • -KG + CoA + NAD ––> SUCCINYL-CoA +CO2 + NADH P

    Both Malic enzymes(Malate>Pyruvate)
  29. What is the significance of -KETOGLUTARATE DEHYDROGENASE being deactivated with high levels of Glucose?
    CATABOLITE REPRESSION OF THE GENE FOR THIS ENZYME ENSURES THAT THE KREBS “CYCLE” IS NOT A CYCLE DURING GROWTH ON GLUCOSE, BUT FORMS A BRANCHNG PATHWAY
  30. What is the significance of Malic enzymes being deactivated when Glucose is present?
    ANAPLEUROTIC REACTIONS (MALIC ENZYMES) ARE NOT REQUIRED BECAUSE GLYCOLYSIS (PYRUVATE KINASES) IS ACTIVELY PRODUCING PYRUVATE WHEN GLUCOSE IS PRESENT.

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