Biology 172 Lab Exam 1

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Biology 172 Lab Exam 1
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2013-10-15 06:18:55
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  1. What supergroup do Dinoflagellates belong?
    Chromalveolata
  2. What superphylum does Dinoflagellata belong?
    Alveolata
  3. Describe the cell wall of Dinoflagellates.
    Cellulose cell wall divided into epitheca and hypotheca.
  4. Distinguishing characteristic of Dinoflagellates?
    Possess two flagella.
  5. Known for red tides caused by blooms.
    Dinoflagellates.
  6. Known for paralytic shellfish poisoning.
    Dinoflagellates
  7. What supergroud do diatoms belong?
    Chromalveolata
  8. What phylum do diatoms belong?
    Bacillariophyta
  9. What shapes do Bacillariophyta (diatoms) come in?
    Pillbox/circular (centric)

    oblong/rodlike (penate)
  10. W
    Volvox

    Phylum: Chlorophyte

    Supergroup: Archaeplastida
  11. Chlamydomonas (green algae)

    Phylum: Chlorophyta

    Supergroup: Archaeplastida
  12. Spirogyra (green algae)

    Phylum: Chlorophyta

    Supergroup: Archaeplastida
  13. What kingdom are green algae in?
    Chlorophyta
  14. What type of chlorophyll do Chlorophytes (green algae) have?
    All have chlorophyll A, adapted to different wavelengths of light.
  15. What is believe to have given rise to land plants?
    Green algae
  16. What is a pneumatocyst?
    Gas-filled bubble-shaped floats on brown algae that keep blades near water surface.
  17. Diatom anatomy (penate)
  18. Dinoflagellate structure
  19. Why are algae generally limited to aquatic environments?
    Lack vascular tissue – no support, dessication, reproduce through water
  20. True or False:
    Kingdom Fungi is eukaryotic?
    true
  21. True or False:
    Kingdom Fungi is mostly unicellular.
    False
  22. What are Fungi cell walls made of?
    Chitin
  23. What is a saprophytic heterotroph?
    Fungi: feed by absorption after secreting exoenzymes
  24. True or false:

    Most fungi lack life history stages bearing flagella or cilia
    true
  25. Which kingdom includes free-living, mutualistic, and pathogenic species?
    Fungi
  26. Which kingdom is ecologically important as decomposers and as symbiotic partners with plants?
    Fungi
  27. True or False:

    Some Fungi cause diseases.
    True
  28. What are a source of antibiotics used in controlling bacterial infections?
    Fungi
  29. Which kingdom includes mold, yeast, rust and mushrooms?
    Fungi
  30. What supergroup does Fungi belong?
    Unikonta
  31. What clade does the Fungi kingdom belong?
    Opisthokont
  32. What is mycelium?
    Fungi's mass of filaments called hyphae (sing., hypha)
  33. septate hyphae
    nuclei divided into separate cells by septa
  34. coenocytic hyphae
    no septa, nuclei in continuous cytoplasmic mass throughout the hyphae
  35. haustoria
    • 1) hyphae that extend into plant cells
    • 2) don’t penetrate into the cytoplasm (surrounded by plant cell plasma membrane)
    • 3) may be mutualistic or parasitic
  36. mychorrhizae
    • 1) = mutualistic symbioses between plants and fungi
    • 2) facilitate water and inorganic nutrient uptake from the soil
    • 3) plant supplies fungus with organic nutrients
  37. ectomychorrhizae
    form an external sheath and penetrate into cell walls of plant host
  38. endomychorrhizae
    form haustoria
  39. Typical Fungal Life Cycle
    asexual reproduction:
    • a. haploid mycelium produces sporangia
    • b. sporangia produces haploid spores
    • c. spores germinate into new hyphae
  40. Typical Fungal Life Cycle
    sexual reproduction
    • a. fusion (plasmogamy) of two different mating types of haploid hyphae
    • b. fused hyphae may be heterokaryotic (cells with both haploid nuclei present) for a while
    • c. karyogamy: fusion of haploid nuclei into zygote (diploid)
    • d. meiosis leads to the production of haploid spores in sporangia
    • e. haploid spores germinate into haploid hyphae
  41. Fungi
    Phylum Chytridiomycota (Chytrids)
    • 1. distinguished by the presence of a flagellated zoospore 
    • 2. apparently diverged from the rest of the fungi early
    • 3. may be a paraphyletic grouping
  42. Phylum Zygomycota (Zygomycetes)
    • 1. common as molds on foods (e.g., bread mold, Rhizopus)
    • 2. life cycle distinguished by the production of zygosporangia
  43. Phylum Glomeromycota (Glomeromycetes)
    • 1. sexual spores produced in sac-like asci (sing., ascus)
    • 2. usually eight haploid ascospores in an ascus
    • 3. asci organized into fruiting bodies called ascocarps
    • 4. asexual spore-producing structures called conidiophores (spores called conidia)
    • 5. includes truffles, morels, and yeasts
  44. Phylum Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes or Club Fungi)
    • 1. distinguished by having sexual spores produced by a basidium 
    • 2. fruiting body involves the production of dikaryotic hyphae after plasmogamy
    • 3. karyogamy takes place in basidia, followed by meiosis into basidiospores
    • 4. includes conventional mushrooms
  45. Lichens
    • 1. involve symbiotic association between green algae (or cyanobacterium) and fungus (typically an ascomycetes)
    • 2. algae provide food (products of photosynthesis to the fungus)
    • 3. cyanobacteria may supply nitrogen via nitrogen fixation
    • 4. fungus houses algae in a protected environment for growth
    • 5. soredia = asexual propagule of fungal hypha wrapped around an algal cell
  46. Crustose lichen
  47. foliose lichen
  48. fruticose lichen
  49. Dinoflagellate

    Ceratium sp.

    See: Transverse groove
  50. Amoebozoa
  51. Perinidium

    Dinoflagellate
  52. Basidiomycete life cycle
  53. Chytridiomycota (Chytrids) Life Cycle
  54. Ascomycota Life Cycle
  55. Lichen
  56. Moss life cycle
  57. Fern life cycle
  58. Why are mosses short?
    No vascular tissue
  59. Fern sporophyte
  60. Moss tissue system
    nonvascular (lacks true roots, stems and leaves)
  61. Mosses gametophyte or sporophyte dominant?
    gametophyte dominant
  62. Moss homosporous or heterosporous?
    homosporous, only one kind of spore is produced
  63. What has gametophytes that form a mat that absorbs water like a sponge?
    moss
  64. What are moss rhizoids for?
    root-like rhizoids anchor gametophytes to the soil
  65. What is moss sporangium for?
    spores released from sporangium dispersed by the wind
  66. How do moss prevent dessication?
    waterproof cuticle minimizes evaporative water loss
  67. What phylum do ferns belong?
    Pterophyta
  68. What are psilophytes?
    whisk ferns
  69. What are sphenophytes?
    horsetails
  70. exhibits dichotomous (Y-shaped) branches
    whisk ferns
  71. Do whisk ferns have true leaves and roots?
    no
  72. Whisk ferns are sporophyte or gametophyte dominant?
    sporophyte dominant
  73. Are whisk ferns homosporous or heterosporous?
    homosporous
  74. The horsetails date back to what period?
    group dates back to the Devonian period
  75. Horsetails are sporophyte or gametophyte dominant?
    sporophyte dominant
  76. produces straight, hollow, jointed stems with whorls of tiny leaves
    horsetails
  77. horsetails are homosporous or heterosporous?
    homosporous
  78. Horsetail gametophyte characteristic?
    photosynthetic bisexual gametophyte produces flagellated sperm
  79. Most diverse of the seedless plants?
    ferns
  80. Most well-adapted for terrestrial existence of the seedless plants
    ferns
  81. Ferns date back to what period?
    date back to the Carboniferous
  82. Ferns are sporophyte or gametophyte dominant?
    sporophyte dominant
  83. Do ferns have true leaves, stems, and roots?
    yes
  84. Fern leave are:
    called fronds, are compound megaphylls (leaves with vein networks, believed to have evolved from fusion of branched stems
  85. What are fiddleheads?
    fronds uncoil from fiddleheads
  86. Where are clusters of sporangia present on ferns? What are they called?
    fronds bear clusters of sporangia called sori (thus leaves may be called sporphylls)
  87. Ferns are homosporus or heterosporous?
    generally homosporous with bisexual gametophyte
  88. Fern sperm structure?
    flagellated sperm
  89. Gymnosperm Life Cycle
  90. Gymnosperms are dispersed by:
    fire and wind. Cones.
  91. Angiosperm Life Cycle
  92. Angiosperms are dispersed by:
    Everything. Bats, birds, bees, mammals, animals, wind. (flowering)
    • Staminate cone
    • Ovulate cone
  93. Gymnosperm pollen (with wings)
  94. Angiosperm pollen
  95. pine
  96. Cone life cycle
  97. cone structure/life cycle
  98. Typical flower
  99. Flower with male and female parts
    Perfect
  100. flower lacking a structure
    incomplete
  101. Pollination
    Taking pollen from one area to another
  102. Dispersal
    Seeds leave the area
  103. Number of cotyledon in dicot
    two
  104. number of cotyledon in monocot
    one
  105. petals in dicot
    multiples of four or five
  106. petals in monocot
    multiples of three
  107. dicot root
  108. monocot root
  109. dicot stem
  110. monocot stem
  111. monocot vein
  112. dicot vein
  113. dicot
  114. monocot leaf
  115. Seed plant's microsporangia produce?
    haploid microspores
  116. seed-bearing plants whose seeds are not enclosed by the ovary ("naked seeds")
    Gymnosperms
  117. ovules form in modified leaves usually in cones
    Gymnosperms
  118. seed-bearing plants that produce flowers and whose seeds are covered by the wall of the ovary (the fruit)
    angiosperms
  119. Which phylum do conifers (pines, cypresses, firs, junipers, & sequoias) belong?
    Coniferophyta
  120. What is the most diverse phylum of gymnosperms?
    Coniferophyta
  121. distinguished by there cones
    Coniferophyta
  122. enclose & protect the flower bud before it opens
    sepals
  123. possess the microsporagia and produce pollen
    stamens
  124. stamens are divided into...
    filament and anther
  125. possess ovules containing megasporangia that give rise to the megaspores that become female gametophytes
    carpels
  126. carpel are divided into:
    divided into the ovary (contains the ovules), style, & stigma
  127. mature female gametophyte composed of only _____ haploid nuclei
    eight
  128. Mature female gametophyte's haploid nuclei consists of:
    • 1) three antipodal cells
    • 2) one cell = egg
    • 3) two synergids
    • 4) two of the haploid nuclei (polar nuclei) combined in a single cell (destined to become triploid endosperm after double fertilization)
    • 5) mature female gametophyte contained within the ovule
  129. mature male gametophyte formed of _____ haploid cells as a pollen grain
    two
  130. mature male gametophyte's haploid cells consist of:
    • 1) tube cell
    • 2) generative cell (will divide to form two sperm nuclei)
  131. Fruit wall is called:
    pericarp
  132. spongy parenchyma

  133. Which are palisade parenchyma/mesophyll?
    red area
  134. vascular bundles
  135. What are tracheids?
  136. box-like cells that are dead at functional maturity
    cork cells
  137. cork cells purpose
    protect outer surface of the plant as the outermost layer of the bark
  138. suberin
    waterproof material in cell walls of cork cells
  139. cork cells
  140. an
    underdeveloped and unelongated stem composed of a short axis with compressed
    internodes, a meristematic apex, and primordial leaves and/or flowers
    bud
  141. a
    bud at the tip of a stem responsible for terminal growth.
    • terminal
    • bud
  142. the
    part of the stem between nodes 
    internode
  143. the
    flattened, green, expanded portion of a leaf.
    • blade
    • or lamina
  144. leaf-like
    appendages (at the base of petiole of some leaves)
    stipules
  145. the
    leaf stalk (connects blade to stem).
    petiole
  146. the
    external part of a fruit. It is all that surrounds the seed.
    pericarp
  147. pericarp divided into...
    exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp
  148. the
    outer covering. In an apple, for instance, it is what we know as the
    "skin".
    exocarp
  149. the middle covering. In a peach what we ordinary call the "flesh".
    mesocarp
  150. the inner covering , in many cases the stiffened part normally covering the seed.
    In a plum , for example, what we commonly know as the "stone".
    endocarp
  151. the part of the embryo which emerges first. Once outside it develops into a main root,
    producing root hairs and secondary roots.
    radicle
  152. like a leaf in its early development.
    plumule
  153. the space between the radicle and the plumule.
    It develops into a stem.
    hypocotyl
  154. the food
    supply contained in the seed. This is sometimes included in the cotyledons,
    which either achieve the function of primary leaves or food storage, even both
    of them in some cases.
    endosperm
  155. important plants, such as cereals, palms, lilies,
    tulips or orchids
    • monocotyledons or
    • monocots
  156. members of this group are more numerous
    and comprises most of the trees and flowers
    • dicotyledons or
    • dicots
  157. testa
    outer layer of the seed; seed coat
  158. micropyle
    • a litle pore on the seed coat , through which,
    • apart from entering the sperm, the seed absorbs water to begin germination.
  159. fruit formed from a single flower
    fleshy fruit
  160. single fleshy fruit without a stone, usually
    containing a number of seeds
    berry
  161. Kiwi fruit, banana, coffee, currant, passionfruit, pepper, tomoato are examples of...
    berry
  162. a single fleshy fruit with a hard stone which
    contains the single seed
    drupe
  163. Cherry, apricot, plum, coconut, olive, peach, sloe are examples of...
    drupe
  164. a fleshy fruit, made up of many drupes but
    formed from a single flower, each drupe containing one seed
    Aggregation of Drupes
  165. Raspberry, loganberry, blackberry are examples of...
    Aggregation of Drupes
  166. a fleshy fruit with a thin skin, not formed from
    the ovary but from another part of the plant. These are sometimes called Accessory
    Fruits. The seeds are contained in chambers in the centre of the fruit. 
    Pome
  167. Apple, firethorn, hawthorn, medlar, pear, quince are examples of...
    pome
  168. a berry with a tough, aromatic rind
    Hesperidium
  169. orange, citrus fruits, citron, grapefruit, kumquat, lemon, lime are examples of...
    hesperidium
  170. Name 5 types of fleshy fruits formed from a single flower.
    Berry, Drupe, Aggregation of drupes, Pome, hesperidium
  171. a false fruit, because it does not contain the
    seeds. The seeds are achenes, on the outside of a fleshy fruit.
    Pseudocarp
  172. strawberry is an example of a...
    pseudocarp
  173. Mulberry, Fig and Pineapple are examples of...
    • FLESHY FRUITS
    • formed from a group of flowers
  174. A dry dehiscent fruit which splits on one side only. It may contain one or
    many seeds. 
    Follicle
  175. Columbine, delphinium, larkspur, love in a mist, milkweed, peony are examples of...
    follicle
  176. a dry dehiscent pod that splits on two sides
    Legume
  177. sweet pea, pea family, acacia, alfalfa are examples of...
    legume
  178. a dry dehiscent fruit, a legume constricted
    between the seeds
    Lomentum
  179. a dry dehiscent fruit. It is long and thin,
    splits down the two long sides, and has a papery membrane (the septum) between
    the two halves
    Silique
  180. wallflower is an example of..
    Silique
  181. golden chain tree is an example of...
    Lomentum
  182. most common fruit type. a dry fruit
    which splits open to release the seeds. 
    capsule
  183. cotton, eucalyptus, horse chestnut all have...
    capsules
  184. a dry dehiscent fruit in which the tips of the
    seed capsule split
    Valvate Capsule
  185. a dry dehiscent fruit, opening with pores or
    holes around the top
    • Porose
    • Capsule
  186. a dry
    dehiscent fruit, splitting along the locule (midrib of each ovary). 
    Loculicidal Capsule
  187. a dry dehiscent fruit, opening by splitting
    through the centre of the fruit, so that the top of the capsule lifts off like
    a lid. An example of this type of fruit is Pimpernel (Anagallis) 
    • Circumscissile
    • Capsule
  188. a simple dry indehiscent fruit, like an achene,
    but with the seedcoat fused with the fruit coat. Includes sweetcorn.
    Caryopsis
  189. an independent dry indehiscent fruit which has part of the fruit wall extended to form a wing. includes maple.
    Samara
  190. Is
    covered in a sticky substance that the pollen grains will adhere to. 
    Stigma 
  191. The
    style raises the stigma away from the Ovary to decrease the likelihood of
    pollen contamination. It varies in length.
    Style 
  192. This
    protects the ovule and once fertilization has taken place it will become the
    fruit. 
    Ovary 
  193. is
    like the egg in animals and once fertilization has taken place will become the
    seed. 
    Ovule 
  194. This
    is the flower's attachment to the stalk and in some cases becomes part of the
    fruit after fertilization e.g. strawberry. 
    Receptacle 
  195. Gives
    support to the flower and elevates the flower for the insects.
    • Flower
    • stalk 
  196. This
    is where a sugary solution called nectar is held to attract insects. 
    Nectary 
  197. This
    is the stalk of the Anther.
    Filament 
  198. contains pollen sacs on flower
    Anther 
  199. The
    stigma, style, ovary, and ovule are often known collectively as 
    carpel or female parts of the flower
  200. cucumbers,
    pumpkin, and melons have perfect/imperfect flowers?
    imperfect
  201. Name 3 examples of perfect flowers.
    Roses, lilies and dandelions
  202. a plant which developed three furrows or pores
    in its pollen (triporate)
    dicot
  203. has pollen with a single furrow or pore through
    the outer layer (monosulcate)
    monocots
  204. Vascular bundles are arranged within the stem of ______ to form a cylinder, appearing as a ring of spots when you cut across the
    stem. 
    dicots
  205. Vascular bundles appear scattered through the stem, with more of the bundles located toward the stem periphery than in the center.
    monocots
  206. In most dicots (and in most seed plants) the
    root develops from the lower end of the embryo, from a region known as the...
    radicle
  207. Are pine trees monocots or dicots?
    • Pines
    • are conifers, and are neither monocots nor dicots. Only flowering plants
    • are considered to be members of these two classes. This question is similar to
    • asking whether a chicken is a monocot or a dicot; it is neither. 
  208. Do all dicots produce flowers?
    • Yes, sort of. All dicots and monocots are
    • flowering plants, and so are descended from flower-producing plants. 

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