Biology 172 Lab Exam 1

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  1. What supergroup do Dinoflagellates belong?
  2. What superphylum does Dinoflagellata belong?
  3. Describe the cell wall of Dinoflagellates.
    Cellulose cell wall divided into epitheca and hypotheca.
  4. Distinguishing characteristic of Dinoflagellates?
    Possess two flagella.
  5. Known for red tides caused by blooms.
  6. Known for paralytic shellfish poisoning.
  7. What supergroud do diatoms belong?
  8. What phylum do diatoms belong?
  9. What shapes do Bacillariophyta (diatoms) come in?
    Pillbox/circular (centric)

    oblong/rodlike (penate)
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    Phylum: Chlorophyte

    Supergroup: Archaeplastida
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    Chlamydomonas (green algae)

    Phylum: Chlorophyta

    Supergroup: Archaeplastida
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    Spirogyra (green algae)

    Phylum: Chlorophyta

    Supergroup: Archaeplastida
  13. What kingdom are green algae in?
  14. What type of chlorophyll do Chlorophytes (green algae) have?
    All have chlorophyll A, adapted to different wavelengths of light.
  15. What is believe to have given rise to land plants?
    Green algae
  16. What is a pneumatocyst?
    Gas-filled bubble-shaped floats on brown algae that keep blades near water surface.
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    Diatom anatomy (penate)
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    Dinoflagellate structure
  19. Why are algae generally limited to aquatic environments?
    Lack vascular tissue – no support, dessication, reproduce through water
  20. True or False:
    Kingdom Fungi is eukaryotic?
  21. True or False:
    Kingdom Fungi is mostly unicellular.
  22. What are Fungi cell walls made of?
  23. What is a saprophytic heterotroph?
    Fungi: feed by absorption after secreting exoenzymes
  24. True or false:

    Most fungi lack life history stages bearing flagella or cilia
  25. Which kingdom includes free-living, mutualistic, and pathogenic species?
  26. Which kingdom is ecologically important as decomposers and as symbiotic partners with plants?
  27. True or False:

    Some Fungi cause diseases.
  28. What are a source of antibiotics used in controlling bacterial infections?
  29. Which kingdom includes mold, yeast, rust and mushrooms?
  30. What supergroup does Fungi belong?
  31. What clade does the Fungi kingdom belong?
  32. What is mycelium?
    Fungi's mass of filaments called hyphae (sing., hypha)
  33. septate hyphae
    nuclei divided into separate cells by septa
  34. coenocytic hyphae
    no septa, nuclei in continuous cytoplasmic mass throughout the hyphae
  35. haustoria
    • 1) hyphae that extend into plant cells
    • 2) don’t penetrate into the cytoplasm (surrounded by plant cell plasma membrane)
    • 3) may be mutualistic or parasitic
  36. mychorrhizae
    • 1) = mutualistic symbioses between plants and fungi
    • 2) facilitate water and inorganic nutrient uptake from the soil
    • 3) plant supplies fungus with organic nutrients
  37. ectomychorrhizae
    form an external sheath and penetrate into cell walls of plant host
  38. endomychorrhizae
    form haustoria
  39. Typical Fungal Life Cycle
    asexual reproduction:
    • a. haploid mycelium produces sporangia
    • b. sporangia produces haploid spores
    • c. spores germinate into new hyphae
  40. Typical Fungal Life Cycle
    sexual reproduction
    • a. fusion (plasmogamy) of two different mating types of haploid hyphae
    • b. fused hyphae may be heterokaryotic (cells with both haploid nuclei present) for a while
    • c. karyogamy: fusion of haploid nuclei into zygote (diploid)
    • d. meiosis leads to the production of haploid spores in sporangia
    • e. haploid spores germinate into haploid hyphae
  41. Fungi
    Phylum Chytridiomycota (Chytrids)
    • 1. distinguished by the presence of a flagellated zoospore 
    • 2. apparently diverged from the rest of the fungi early
    • 3. may be a paraphyletic grouping
  42. Phylum Zygomycota (Zygomycetes)
    • 1. common as molds on foods (e.g., bread mold, Rhizopus)
    • 2. life cycle distinguished by the production of zygosporangia
  43. Phylum Glomeromycota (Glomeromycetes)
    • 1. sexual spores produced in sac-like asci (sing., ascus)
    • 2. usually eight haploid ascospores in an ascus
    • 3. asci organized into fruiting bodies called ascocarps
    • 4. asexual spore-producing structures called conidiophores (spores called conidia)
    • 5. includes truffles, morels, and yeasts
  44. Phylum Basidiomycota (Basidiomycetes or Club Fungi)
    • 1. distinguished by having sexual spores produced by a basidium 
    • 2. fruiting body involves the production of dikaryotic hyphae after plasmogamy
    • 3. karyogamy takes place in basidia, followed by meiosis into basidiospores
    • 4. includes conventional mushrooms
  45. Lichens
    • 1. involve symbiotic association between green algae (or cyanobacterium) and fungus (typically an ascomycetes)
    • 2. algae provide food (products of photosynthesis to the fungus)
    • 3. cyanobacteria may supply nitrogen via nitrogen fixation
    • 4. fungus houses algae in a protected environment for growth
    • 5. soredia = asexual propagule of fungal hypha wrapped around an algal cell
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    Crustose lichen
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    foliose lichen
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    fruticose lichen
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    Ceratium sp.

    See: Transverse groove
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  52. Basidiomycete life cycle
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  53. Chytridiomycota (Chytrids) Life Cycle
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  54. Ascomycota Life Cycle
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  56. Moss life cycle
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  57. Fern life cycle
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  61. Why are mosses short?
    No vascular tissue
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    Fern sporophyte
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  65. Moss tissue system
    nonvascular (lacks true roots, stems and leaves)
  66. Mosses gametophyte or sporophyte dominant?
    gametophyte dominant
  67. Moss homosporous or heterosporous?
    homosporous, only one kind of spore is produced
  68. What has gametophytes that form a mat that absorbs water like a sponge?
  69. What are moss rhizoids for?
    root-like rhizoids anchor gametophytes to the soil
  70. What is moss sporangium for?
    spores released from sporangium dispersed by the wind
  71. How do moss prevent dessication?
    waterproof cuticle minimizes evaporative water loss
  72. What phylum do ferns belong?
  73. What are psilophytes?
    whisk ferns
  74. What are sphenophytes?
  75. exhibits dichotomous (Y-shaped) branches
    whisk ferns
  76. Do whisk ferns have true leaves and roots?
  77. Whisk ferns are sporophyte or gametophyte dominant?
    sporophyte dominant
  78. Are whisk ferns homosporous or heterosporous?
  79. The horsetails date back to what period?
    group dates back to the Devonian period
  80. Horsetails are sporophyte or gametophyte dominant?
    sporophyte dominant
  81. produces straight, hollow, jointed stems with whorls of tiny leaves
  82. horsetails are homosporous or heterosporous?
  83. Horsetail gametophyte characteristic?
    photosynthetic bisexual gametophyte produces flagellated sperm
  84. Most diverse of the seedless plants?
  85. Most well-adapted for terrestrial existence of the seedless plants
  86. Ferns date back to what period?
    date back to the Carboniferous
  87. Ferns are sporophyte or gametophyte dominant?
    sporophyte dominant
  88. Do ferns have true leaves, stems, and roots?
  89. Fern leave are:
    called fronds, are compound megaphylls (leaves with vein networks, believed to have evolved from fusion of branched stems
  90. What are fiddleheads?
    fronds uncoil from fiddleheads
  91. Where are clusters of sporangia present on ferns? What are they called?
    fronds bear clusters of sporangia called sori (thus leaves may be called sporphylls)
  92. Ferns are homosporus or heterosporous?
    generally homosporous with bisexual gametophyte
  93. Fern sperm structure?
    flagellated sperm
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    Gymnosperm Life Cycle
  95. Gymnosperms are dispersed by:
    fire and wind. Cones.
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    Angiosperm Life Cycle
  97. Angiosperms are dispersed by:
    Everything. Bats, birds, bees, mammals, animals, wind. (flowering)
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    • Staminate cone
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    • Ovulate cone
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    Gymnosperm pollen (with wings)
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    Angiosperm pollen
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    Cone life cycle
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    cone structure/life cycle
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    Typical flower
  106. Flower with male and female parts
  107. flower lacking a structure
  108. Pollination
    Taking pollen from one area to another
  109. Dispersal
    Seeds leave the area
  110. Number of cotyledon in dicot
  111. number of cotyledon in monocot
  112. petals in dicot
    multiples of four or five
  113. petals in monocot
    multiples of three
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    dicot root
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    monocot root
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    dicot stem
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    monocot stem
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    monocot vein
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    dicot vein
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    monocot leaf
  122. Seed plant's microsporangia produce?
    haploid microspores
  123. seed-bearing plants whose seeds are not enclosed by the ovary ("naked seeds")
  124. ovules form in modified leaves usually in cones
  125. seed-bearing plants that produce flowers and whose seeds are covered by the wall of the ovary (the fruit)
  126. Which phylum do conifers (pines, cypresses, firs, junipers, & sequoias) belong?
  127. What is the most diverse phylum of gymnosperms?
  128. distinguished by there cones
  129. enclose & protect the flower bud before it opens
  130. possess the microsporagia and produce pollen
  131. stamens are divided into...
    filament and anther
  132. possess ovules containing megasporangia that give rise to the megaspores that become female gametophytes
  133. carpel are divided into:
    divided into the ovary (contains the ovules), style, & stigma
  134. mature female gametophyte composed of only _____ haploid nuclei
  135. Mature female gametophyte's haploid nuclei consists of:
    • 1) three antipodal cells
    • 2) one cell = egg
    • 3) two synergids
    • 4) two of the haploid nuclei (polar nuclei) combined in a single cell (destined to become triploid endosperm after double fertilization)
    • 5) mature female gametophyte contained within the ovule
  136. mature male gametophyte formed of _____ haploid cells as a pollen grain
  137. mature male gametophyte's haploid cells consist of:
    • 1) tube cell
    • 2) generative cell (will divide to form two sperm nuclei)
  138. Fruit wall is called:
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    spongy parenchyma
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    Which are palisade parenchyma/mesophyll?
    red area
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    vascular bundles
  142. What are tracheids?
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  143. box-like cells that are dead at functional maturity
    cork cells
  144. cork cells purpose
    protect outer surface of the plant as the outermost layer of the bark
  145. suberin
    waterproof material in cell walls of cork cells
  146. cork cells
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  147. an
    underdeveloped and unelongated stem composed of a short axis with compressed
    internodes, a meristematic apex, and primordial leaves and/or flowers
  148. a
    bud at the tip of a stem responsible for terminal growth.
    • terminal
    • bud
  149. the
    part of the stem between nodes 
  150. the
    flattened, green, expanded portion of a leaf.
    • blade
    • or lamina
  151. leaf-like
    appendages (at the base of petiole of some leaves)
  152. the
    leaf stalk (connects blade to stem).
  153. the
    external part of a fruit. It is all that surrounds the seed.
  154. pericarp divided into...
    exocarp, mesocarp and endocarp
  155. the
    outer covering. In an apple, for instance, it is what we know as the
  156. the middle covering. In a peach what we ordinary call the "flesh".
  157. the inner covering , in many cases the stiffened part normally covering the seed.
    In a plum , for example, what we commonly know as the "stone".
  158. the part of the embryo which emerges first. Once outside it develops into a main root,
    producing root hairs and secondary roots.
  159. like a leaf in its early development.
  160. the space between the radicle and the plumule.
    It develops into a stem.
  161. the food
    supply contained in the seed. This is sometimes included in the cotyledons,
    which either achieve the function of primary leaves or food storage, even both
    of them in some cases.
  162. important plants, such as cereals, palms, lilies,
    tulips or orchids
    • monocotyledons or
    • monocots
  163. members of this group are more numerous
    and comprises most of the trees and flowers
    • dicotyledons or
    • dicots
  164. testa
    outer layer of the seed; seed coat
  165. micropyle
    • a litle pore on the seed coat , through which,
    • apart from entering the sperm, the seed absorbs water to begin germination.
  166. fruit formed from a single flower
    fleshy fruit
  167. single fleshy fruit without a stone, usually
    containing a number of seeds
  168. Kiwi fruit, banana, coffee, currant, passionfruit, pepper, tomoato are examples of...
  169. a single fleshy fruit with a hard stone which
    contains the single seed
  170. Cherry, apricot, plum, coconut, olive, peach, sloe are examples of...
  171. a fleshy fruit, made up of many drupes but
    formed from a single flower, each drupe containing one seed
    Aggregation of Drupes
  172. Raspberry, loganberry, blackberry are examples of...
    Aggregation of Drupes
  173. a fleshy fruit with a thin skin, not formed from
    the ovary but from another part of the plant. These are sometimes called Accessory
    Fruits. The seeds are contained in chambers in the centre of the fruit. 
  174. Apple, firethorn, hawthorn, medlar, pear, quince are examples of...
  175. a berry with a tough, aromatic rind
  176. orange, citrus fruits, citron, grapefruit, kumquat, lemon, lime are examples of...
  177. Name 5 types of fleshy fruits formed from a single flower.
    Berry, Drupe, Aggregation of drupes, Pome, hesperidium
  178. a false fruit, because it does not contain the
    seeds. The seeds are achenes, on the outside of a fleshy fruit.
  179. strawberry is an example of a...
  180. Mulberry, Fig and Pineapple are examples of...
    • formed from a group of flowers
  181. A dry dehiscent fruit which splits on one side only. It may contain one or
    many seeds. 
  182. Columbine, delphinium, larkspur, love in a mist, milkweed, peony are examples of...
  183. a dry dehiscent pod that splits on two sides
  184. sweet pea, pea family, acacia, alfalfa are examples of...
  185. a dry dehiscent fruit, a legume constricted
    between the seeds
  186. a dry dehiscent fruit. It is long and thin,
    splits down the two long sides, and has a papery membrane (the septum) between
    the two halves
  187. wallflower is an example of..
  188. golden chain tree is an example of...
  189. most common fruit type. a dry fruit
    which splits open to release the seeds. 
  190. cotton, eucalyptus, horse chestnut all have...
  191. a dry dehiscent fruit in which the tips of the
    seed capsule split
    Valvate Capsule
  192. a dry dehiscent fruit, opening with pores or
    holes around the top
    • Porose
    • Capsule
  193. a dry
    dehiscent fruit, splitting along the locule (midrib of each ovary). 
    Loculicidal Capsule
  194. a dry dehiscent fruit, opening by splitting
    through the centre of the fruit, so that the top of the capsule lifts off like
    a lid. An example of this type of fruit is Pimpernel (Anagallis) 
    • Circumscissile
    • Capsule
  195. a simple dry indehiscent fruit, like an achene,
    but with the seedcoat fused with the fruit coat. Includes sweetcorn.
  196. an independent dry indehiscent fruit which has part of the fruit wall extended to form a wing. includes maple.
  197. Is
    covered in a sticky substance that the pollen grains will adhere to. 
  198. The
    style raises the stigma away from the Ovary to decrease the likelihood of
    pollen contamination. It varies in length.
  199. This
    protects the ovule and once fertilization has taken place it will become the
  200. is
    like the egg in animals and once fertilization has taken place will become the
  201. This
    is the flower's attachment to the stalk and in some cases becomes part of the
    fruit after fertilization e.g. strawberry. 
  202. Gives
    support to the flower and elevates the flower for the insects.
    • Flower
    • stalk 
  203. This
    is where a sugary solution called nectar is held to attract insects. 
  204. This
    is the stalk of the Anther.
  205. contains pollen sacs on flower
  206. The
    stigma, style, ovary, and ovule are often known collectively as 
    carpel or female parts of the flower
  207. cucumbers,
    pumpkin, and melons have perfect/imperfect flowers?
  208. Name 3 examples of perfect flowers.
    Roses, lilies and dandelions
  209. a plant which developed three furrows or pores
    in its pollen (triporate)
  210. has pollen with a single furrow or pore through
    the outer layer (monosulcate)
  211. Vascular bundles are arranged within the stem of ______ to form a cylinder, appearing as a ring of spots when you cut across the
  212. Vascular bundles appear scattered through the stem, with more of the bundles located toward the stem periphery than in the center.
  213. In most dicots (and in most seed plants) the
    root develops from the lower end of the embryo, from a region known as the...
  214. Are pine trees monocots or dicots?
    • Pines
    • are conifers, and are neither monocots nor dicots. Only flowering plants
    • are considered to be members of these two classes. This question is similar to
    • asking whether a chicken is a monocot or a dicot; it is neither. 
  215. Do all dicots produce flowers?
    • Yes, sort of. All dicots and monocots are
    • flowering plants, and so are descended from flower-producing plants. 
Card Set:
Biology 172 Lab Exam 1
2013-10-15 10:18:55
Biology Lab Exam

Biology First Practical Study Cards
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