Exercise Physio LECTURE 1

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Exercise Physio LECTURE 1
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  1. CNS Control of Movement
  2. PNS Control of Movement
  3. Initiating, Integrating and Controlling Movements
    Cerebrum - 

    Motor Cortex - 

    Premotor Cortex - 

    Sensory Cortex - 

    Basal Ganglia - 

    Thalamus -

    Cerebellum - 

    Medulla Oblongata - 

    Pons - 

    Midbrain - 

    Pyramidal System - 

    Extrapyramidal System - 

    Muscle Spindles - 

    Golgi Tendon Organs

    Bulbs of Krause - 

    Pacinian Corpuscles - 

    Ruffini End Organs - 

    Limbic System -
  4. Ipsalateral Training
  5. Proprioceptors
  6. Roles of the Muscle Spindle
  7. Roles of the Intrafusal Fibers
  8. Roles of the Gamma Motor Neurons
  9. Roles of the Annulosprial Endings
  10. Roles of the Sensory Afferent Neurons
  11. Three Functions of Muscle Spindles
  12. Motor Unit
    • What is it?
    • General Characteristics

    1-5
  13. Roles of Extrafusal Muscle Fibers
  14. Roles of Alpha Motor Neurons
  15. Physiological Characteristics of a Motor Unit
  16. Neuron
  17. Soma
  18. Axon
  19. Dendrite
  20. Schwann Cell
  21. Node of Ranvier
  22. Saltatory Conduction
  23. Synapse
  24. Pre-Synaptic Membrane
  25. Post-Synaptic Membrane
  26. Synaptic Cleft
  27. Synaptic Vesicle
  28. Acetylcholine
  29. Gamma Amino Butyric Acid
  30. Epimysium
  31. Perimysium
  32. Endomysium
  33. Sarcolemma
  34. Sarcoplasm
  35. Mitochondria
  36. Myofibril
  37. Sarcomere
  38. Actin
  39. Myosin
  40. Crossbridge
  41. S-1 Head of Myosin
  42. Tropomyosin
  43. Troponin
  44. Z Line
  45. I Band
  46. A Band
  47. H Zone
  48. T Tubules
  49. Longitudinal Tubules
  50. Cisternae
  51. In relationship to the sarcoplasmic reticulum, what is meant by the term "triad?"
  52. What happens to the H zone and I band during muscle contraction?
  53. What is the basic functional unit of a muscle cell?
  54. Events of Muscle Contraction (1-1/1-1A)

    Relate events of muscle contraction to the sliding filament theory.
  55. 2 Roles of Calcium in Muscle Contraction
  56. 3 Roles of ATP in Muscle Contraction
  57. How fast can muscle tissue twitch during sustained muscular contraction?
  58. 3 Fundamental Principles of Exercise Physiology
  59. What factors are peak rate of muscle contraction dependent on?
  60. What factors is maximal force (tension) that a muscle can generate dependent on?
  61. What factors are continuation of muscle contraction dependent on?
  62. Muscle Fiber Types
  63. How do muscle fiber types relate to the 3 fundamental principles of exercise physiology?
  64. 2 Methods to Determine Muscle Fiber Types
    • myosin atpase
    • sdh staining
    • effects of varying pH on the stability of myosin ATPase
  65. Rate of Contraction for Muscle Fiber Types
    (various physiological mechanism underlying the properties)
  66. Tension of Contraction for Muscle Fiber Types
    (various physiological mechanism underlying the properties)
  67. Endurance Properties for Muscle Fiber Types
    (various physiological mechanism underlying the properties)
  68. General Neuronal Characteristics of FT and ST Motor Units
  69. Contraction of ST and FT Motor Units
  70. Recruitment Characteristics of ST and FT Motor Units
  71. Size Principle
  72. ..............Which came first, the motor neuron or the fiber type?
  73. What do cross-innervation studies indicate?
  74. What theories are used to explain the results of cross-innervation studies?
  75. Distribution of Fiber Type
    Men

    Women
  76. Does the distribution of muscle fiber types vary between as well as within individuals? EXPLAIN
  77. Does the distribution of muscle fiber types relate to performance in various events? EXPLAIN
  78. Is successful performance in various events related to nature (genetics) and/or nurture (training)? EXPLAIN
  79. Determinants of Force Production
    1-5, 1-5A, 1-5B
  80. Various Effects of Fatigue on Force Production
    1-6
  81. Factors Influencing Speed of Movement
    1-7
  82. How does training affect contractile-related factors?
  83. How does training affect muscle fiber type composition?
  84. Does strength training compliment endurance training and does endurance training compliment strength training?
    1-8, 1-8A
  85. 3 Primary Sources of Fatigue
  86. How does fatigue affect force production?
  87. Is the rate of fatigue related to muscle fiber type? EXPLAIN
  88. Primary Factors Influencing Speed of Movement
  89. Anaerobic Metabolic Pathways
    Phosphagen or ATP-PC System

    Anaerobic Glycolytic

    Lactic Acid System
  90. Aerobic Metabolic Pathways
    Aerobic Glycolytic System

    Kreb's Cycle

    Beta or Fat Oxidative System

    Electron Transport System
  91. Key Substrates and Enzymes in Each Energy System or Cycle
    be able to match the substrates and enzymes with the correct cycle or system
  92. Factors Which Stimulate or Inhibit the Key Enzymes in Glycolysis
  93. Factors Which Stimulate or Inhibit the Rate of Glycolytic Activity
  94. Which of the metabolic pathways are located in the sarcoplasm and mitochondria?
  95. Glycogen Sparing
  96. Priming the Pump for Fat Usage
  97. If carbohydrates (i.e., pyruvate) are not available to prime the pump for fat usage, the excess breakdown of fatty acids may result in the formation of what negative by-product?
  98. Does this negative by-product affect force productio? How?
  99. 4 Ways ATP Can Be Synthesized
  100. How many net ATP can be synthesized from anaerobic glycolysis (lactic acid system) in skeletal and cardiac muscle?
  101. How many net ATP can be synthesized from aerobic glycolysis (CHO oxidation) in skeletal and cardiac muscle?
  102. For every molecule of acetyl CoA that enters the Krebs Cycle, how many ATP can be synthesized?
  103. How many ATP can be synthesized in the electron transport system if NAD and FAD carry the pairs of H+ and their associated electrons from glycolysis to the electron transport system?
  104. How many ATP can be synthesized in the electron transport system if NAD and FAD carry the pairs of H+ and their associated electrons from Krebs Cycle to the electron transport system?
  105. How many ATP can be synthesized in the electron transport system if NAD and FAD carry the pairs of H+ and their associated electrons from Beta Oxidation to the electron transport system?
  106. How many acetyl CoA molecules can be formed from a triglycerid molecule (assume all the fatty acids are either 12, 14, 16, or 18 carbons in length)?
  107. Other than the acetyl CoA fatty acids, what are two other sources of fuel substrate and/or ATP from fat metabolism?
  108. For each gram of fat and CHO, approximately how many kcal can be yielded?
  109. 4 Fates of Pyruvate
  110. Factors That Influence the Rate of Pyruvate
  111. Does training effect the factors influencing the fate of pyruvate? How?
  112. Factors That Affect the Power (kcal/min) and Capacity (kcal) of the Various Energy Systems
  113. General Metabolic Responses of the Energy Systems to Exercise
  114. During what time frame is the phosphagen (ATP-PC) system the primary source of energy production during sustained maximal effort activities?
  115. During what time frame is the glycolytic system the primary source of energy production during sustained maximal effort activities?
  116. During what time frame is the oxidative energy system the primary source of energy production during sustained maximal effort activities?
  117. Hormones that Influence the Mobilization of Fat From Adipose Tissue
  118. How Catecholamines Regulate Glycogenesis (breakdown of CHO) and Lipolysis (breakdown of fat) in Muscle Tissue
  119. Basic Principles of CHO Loading
  120. Does CHO loading enhance sprint and endurance performance? Why?

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