Psychology 2

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megxcorkie
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2403
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Psychology 2
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2009-12-07 23:26:23
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Final Exam
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mrs. cooper
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  1. in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing
    free association
  2. Freud's theory of personality that attributes thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
    psychoanalysis
  3. according to Freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories. According to contemporary psychologists, information processing of which we are unaware
    unconscious
  4. To understand the mind's dynamics during this conflict, Freud proposed three interacting systems: the...
    id, ego, and superego
  5. contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to Freud, strives to satisfy basic sexual and aggressive drives. The ______ operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification
    id
  6. the largely conscious, "executive" part of personality that, according to Freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality. The _______ operates on the reality principle, satisfying the id's desires in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain
    ego
  7. the part of personality that, according to Freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgement (the conscience) and for future aspirations
    superego
  8. the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to Freud, the id's pleasure-seeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones
    psychosexual stages
  9. the psychosexual stages are:
    oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
  10. pleasure centers on the mouth-sucking, biting, chewing
    oral
  11. pleasure focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping with demands for control
    anal
  12. pleasure zone in the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings
    phallic
  13. dormant sexual feelings
    latency
  14. maturation of sexual interests
    genital
  15. methods that reduce or redirect anxiety by distorting reality
    defense mechanisms
  16. in psychoanalytic theory, the basic defense mechanisms that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories for consciousness
    repression
  17. psychoanalytic defense mechanism in which an individual faced with anxiety retreats to a more infantile psychosexual stage, where some psychic energy remains fixated
    regression
  18. ego to unconsciously switch unacceptable impulses into their opposites. For example, people may express feelings of purity when they may be suffering anxiety from unconscious feelings about sex
    reaction formation
  19. diagnose their own threatening impulses by attributing them to others
    projection
  20. offers self-justifying explanations in place of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions
    rationalization
  21. shift sexual or aggressive impulse toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, redirection anger toward a safer outlet
    displacement
  22. seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzing their interpretations of the blots
    Rorschach Inkblot test
  23. the process of fulfilling our potential
    self-actualization
  24. deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behavior patterns
    psychological disorder
  25. a psychological disorder marked by the appearance by age 7 and of one or more of three key symptoms; extreme inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity
    Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)
  26. psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
    anxiety disorders
  27. an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, uneasy, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
    generalized anxiety disorder
  28. an anxiety disorder marked by unpredictable minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations
    panic disorder
  29. an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situtation
    phobia
  30. an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compulsions)
    obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)
  31. an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience
    post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD)
  32. a personality disorder in which the person (usually a man) exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members. May be aggressive and ruthless or a clever con artist
    antisocial personality disorder
  33. disruptive, inflexible, and enduring behavior patterns that impair one's social functioning
    personality disorders
  34. psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes
    mood disorders
  35. a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or a medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
    major depression disorder
  36. a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, wildly optimistic state
    mania
  37. a mood disorder in which the person alternates between the hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania
    bipolar disorder
  38. a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
    schizophrenia
  39. treatment involving psychological techniques; consists of interactions between a trained therapist and someone seeking to overcome psychological difficulties or achieve personal growth
    psychotherapy
  40. Sigmund Freud's therapeutic technique. Freud believed the patient's free associations, resistances, dreams, and transferences-- and the therapist's interpretations of them- released previously repressed feelings, allowing the patient to gain self-insight
    psychoanalysis
  41. in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
    resistance
  42. in psychoanalysis, the analyst's noting supposed dream meanings, resistances, and other significant behaviors and events in order to promote insight
    interpretation
  43. in psychoanalysis, the patient's transfer to the analyst of emotions linked with other relationships
    transference
  44. a humanistic therapy, developed by Carl Rogers, in which the therapist uses techniques such as active listening within a genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth
    client-centered therapy
  45. empathic listening in which the listener echoes, restates, and clarifies. A feature of Rogers' client-centered therapy
    active listening
  46. the scientific study of how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
    social psychology
  47. the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
    social loafing
  48. the loss of self-awareness and self-restraint occurring in group situations that foster arousal and anonymity
    deindividuation
  49. the mode of thinking that occurs when the desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives
    groupthink
  50. a unjustifiable (and usually negative) attitude toward a group and its members. Prejudice generally involves stereotyped beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
    prejudice
  51. a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
    stereotype
  52. unjustifiable negative behavior toward a group or it's members
    discrimination
  53. Prejudice is __________; Discrimination is __________
    attitude; behavior
  54. the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely to give aid if other bystanders are present
    bystander effect

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