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What is active immunization?
stimulation of immune response to challenge w/ immunogen
How is active immunization crossed?
- naturally through diease
- admistered by health care worker
What is passive immunization?
transfer of preformed Ab to recipient
What does passive immunization include?
IgG fraction from placenta of donors
How does passive immunization cross?
naturally across the placenta
In passive immunization was in injected?
- Purified Ab/serum
- serum containing Ab (antiserum)
What is the specific sera called in passive immunization?
What kind of protection is passive immunization?
rapid temp protection
When is passive immunization given?
post-exposure prophylaxis to botulism, tetnusm diphtheria, Hep A&B, measles, and rabies
What else can can passive immunization be given for?
also done for snake and insect bites
What is the risk of passive immunization?
- type III hypersensitivity rxn
- Ag-Ab complexes cause activation of complement
natural exposure to Ag induces IR and now has immunity
- deliberate exp to Ag induces IR
- ex imms of children
trasnfer of Ab and gives temp immunity through the placenta/milk
- Ab in immune serum are injected
- rabies immune globulin given after dog bite
prep of microbe used to induce artificial active immunity
What is Herd immunity?
immunity of critical portion of population (40%?)
How does herd immunity occur?
naturally or through vaccines
What is a vaccine composed of?
living or inactivated microbe
What cells do some vaccines involve?
What other kind of reponse can occur with vaccines?
some potentiate secondary humoral response
What are the tpyes of vaccines?
attenuated and inactivated
live but not pathogenic
What do attenuated vaccines do?
- trigger cell-mediated response
- gives her immunity (inffects nonvaccinated)
- whole agent, subunit, both req boosters
- no herd immunity
What makes vaccines effective?
safe, long lasting, induces specific Abs/immune cells, low cost, stable, east to administer
What do attenuated (live) vaccines do?
- results in undectable disease
- long lasting immunity
- cant cause disease
What are the vaccines that are attenuated (live)
- MMR, oral Sabin polio, VZV, yellow fever
- ?BCG, Francisella
What are the negative affects of inactivated (killed) vaccines?
- not lifelong
- humoral, not cell-mediated
- no local IgA response
- req booster shots
- large doses
What are the types of inactivated (killed) vaccines?
Examples of inactivated vaccines (killed)?
anthrax, cholera, salk polio, pertussis, rabies, influenza
Examples of inactivated vaccines (subunit)?
Examples of inactivated vaccines (kpeptide/poly)?
HiB, Pneumococcus, meningococcus, new HPV
Examples of inactivated vaccines (toxoid)?
How are inactivated (killed) vaccines given?
- given with adjuvant
- boosts immunogenicity
New vaccine for HPV?
women 9-26 y/o
What types of HPV serptypes?
6, 11, 16, 18
How is the protein subunit for the recombinant vaccine for HPV made?
protein subunits made by genetically-engineered microbe
When is HPV contraindicated?
persons allergic to yeast
What are there no vaccines for?
Malaria, influenza, syphilis, Strep, pyogenes, cold viruses, HIV, Herpes, Hep C