PPT Immunization

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Author:
maria_mm_10
ID:
240315
Filename:
PPT Immunization
Updated:
2013-10-13 11:19:00
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Med Micro
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Exam 2
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  1. What is active immunization?
    stimulation of immune response to challenge w/ immunogen
  2. How is active immunization crossed?
    • naturally through diease
    • admistered by health care worker
  3. What is passive immunization?
    transfer of preformed Ab to recipient
  4. What does passive immunization include?
    IgG fraction from placenta of donors
  5. How does passive immunization cross?
    naturally across the placenta
  6. In passive immunization was in injected?
    • Purified Ab/serum
    • serum containing Ab (antiserum)
  7. What is the specific sera called in passive immunization?
    hyperimmune globulin
  8. What kind of protection is passive immunization?
    rapid temp protection
  9. When is passive immunization given?
    post-exposure prophylaxis to botulism, tetnusm diphtheria, Hep A&B, measles, and rabies
  10. What else can can passive immunization be given for?
    also done for snake and insect bites
  11. What is the risk of passive immunization?
    • type III hypersensitivity rxn
    • Ag-Ab complexes cause activation of complement
  12. Active-Natural
    natural exposure to Ag induces IR and now has immunity
  13. Active-artificial
    • deliberate exp to Ag induces IR
    • ex imms of children
  14. Passive-natural
    trasnfer of Ab and gives temp immunity through the placenta/milk
  15. Passive-atrificial
    • Ab in immune serum are injected
    • rabies immune globulin given after dog bite
  16. Vaccine
    prep of microbe used to induce artificial active immunity
  17. What is Herd immunity?
    immunity of critical portion of population (40%?)
  18. How does herd immunity occur?
    naturally or through vaccines
  19. What is a vaccine composed of?
    living or inactivated microbe
  20. What cells do some vaccines involve?
    cell-mediated Th1
  21. What other kind of reponse can occur with vaccines?
    some potentiate secondary humoral response
  22. What are the tpyes of vaccines?
    attenuated and inactivated
  23. Attenuated
    live but not pathogenic
  24. What do attenuated vaccines do?
    • trigger cell-mediated response
    • gives her immunity (inffects nonvaccinated)
  25. Inactivated
    • whole agent, subunit, both req boosters
    • no herd immunity
  26. Types of viruses
  27. What makes vaccines effective?
    safe, long lasting, induces specific Abs/immune cells, low cost, stable, east to administer
  28. What do attenuated (live) vaccines do?
    • results in undectable disease
    • long lasting immunity
    • cant cause disease
  29. What are the vaccines that are attenuated (live)
    • MMR, oral Sabin polio, VZV, yellow fever
    • ?BCG, Francisella
  30. What are the negative affects of inactivated (killed) vaccines?
    • not lifelong
    • humoral, not cell-mediated
    • no local IgA response
    • req booster shots
    • large doses
  31. What are the types of inactivated (killed) vaccines?
    • killed
    • subunit
    • peptide/polysaccaride
    • toxoid
  32. Examples of inactivated vaccines (killed)?
    anthrax, cholera, salk polio, pertussis, rabies, influenza
  33. Examples of inactivated vaccines (subunit)?
    Hep B
  34. Examples of inactivated vaccines (kpeptide/poly)?
    HiB, Pneumococcus, meningococcus, new HPV
  35. Examples of inactivated vaccines (toxoid)?
    • diphtheria
    • tetanus
  36. How are inactivated (killed) vaccines given?
    • given with adjuvant
    • boosts immunogenicity
  37. New vaccine for HPV?
    women 9-26 y/o
  38. What types of HPV serptypes?
    6, 11, 16, 18
  39. How is the protein subunit for the recombinant vaccine for HPV made?
    protein subunits made by genetically-engineered microbe
  40. When is HPV contraindicated?
    persons allergic to yeast
  41. What are there no vaccines for?
    Malaria, influenza, syphilis, Strep, pyogenes, cold viruses, HIV, Herpes, Hep C

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