Chemistry Chapter 3

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Author:
tiffanydawnn
ID:
24032
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Chemistry Chapter 3
Updated:
2010-06-18 13:13:55
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chemistry chapter
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Electronic Structure/Periodic Law
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  1. period
    • elements in the same horizontal row
    • same number of energy shells
  2. group
    • elements in the same vertical column
    • same number of valence electrons
  3. Group IA (1A)
    • alkali metals
    • 1 valence electron
  4. Group IIA (2A)
    • alkali earth metals
    • 2 valence electrons
  5. Group VIIA (7A)
    • halogens
    • 7 valence electrons
  6. Group VIIIA (8A)
    • noble gases
    • 8 valence electrons
  7. Transition Metals
    Group 3-12
  8. shell
    • location and energy of electrons around a nucleus (n)
    • > n = > energies/distances
  9. subshell
    • each shell made up of one or more subshells
    • s, p, d, f
    • number of subshells = number of the shell (shell 3 contains 3s, 3p, 3d)
    • identify shell by shell #, subshell letter (3p subshell)
  10. orbital
    • specific volumes of space around the nucleus where electrons move
    • s subshell - 1 orbital - 2 electrons
    • p subshell - 3 orbitals - 6 electrons
    • d subshell - 5 orbitals - 10 electrons
    • f subshell - 7 orbitals - 14 electrons
    • Two electrons per orbital
  11. Subshell Filling
    1s, 2s, 2p, 3s, 3p, 4s, 3d, 4p, 5s, 4d, 5p, 6s, 4f, 5d, 6p, 7s, 5f, 6d
  12. Electron Configurations
    Gallium 31 electrons 1s22s22p63s23p64s23d104p1
  13. Noble Gas Configurations
    Electronic configurations of noble gases end with completely filled s and p subshells

    • He: 1s2
    • Ne: [He]2s22p6
    • Ar: [Ne]3s23p6
    • Kr: [Ar]4s24p6
    • Xe: [Kr]5s25p6

    Example: Mg -> [Ne]3s2
  14. Metallic Property Trends
    • elements become less metallic left to right across periods
    • elements become more metallic top to bottom down group
  15. Atom Size Trends
    • elements become smaller left to right across periods
    • elements become larger top to bottom down group
  16. ion
    atom or molecule where electrons do not equal protons (net positive or negative charge)
  17. cation
    • positive charge
    • has lost electrons
    • metals
  18. anion
    • negative charge
    • has gained electrons
    • nonmetals

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