Exam Week 9

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alicia0309
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240340
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Exam Week 9
Updated:
2013-10-13 23:42:25
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Nursing 102
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Nutrition Lecture, Spirituality Lecture
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  1. what are the nutrients needed for growth an development?
    • Carbohydrates
    • Proteins
    • Lipids
    • Vitamins
    • Fiber
  2. What are the types of Carbohydrates?
    • simple
    • complex
  3. what are simple carbs?
    • sugars
    • produced naturally by plant/animal
    • water soluble
    • monosaccharide/disaccharide
    • Glucose+Galactose=Lactose
    • Processed Sugars
  4. What are complex carbs?
    • Starches & Fiber
    • Fat Soluble
    • grains, legumes, potatoes, bread, pudding
  5. Where do you find fiber?
    Grains and Bran (outer layer)

    Friuts/Veggies (seeds, skin and Pulp)
  6. how are carbohydrates metabolized?
    • carbs major source of energy
    • breakdown into glucose
    • used as energy or stored (as glycogen or fat)
    • all cells store  but most glycogen stored in liver & skeletal muscles
    • converts back into energy if needed
  7. what vitamins are water soluble?
    • body cannot store
    • B complex (B1, B2, B3, B6, B12)
    • C
    • Biotin
    • Pantothenic Acid
    • higher amount found in freshly harvested food
  8. What vitamins are Fat Soluble (not water soluble)?
    • A
    • D
    • E
    • K
    • Body Can Store
  9. what is a major source of energy for the body?
    Carbohydrates
  10. Nutritional considerations
    Neonate to 1 year
    • needs met by breast milk or formula
    • high metabolic rate, immature kidneys
    • eat every 2 1/2 - 4 hours (80-100mL)
    • NB-6mon require iron
    • teeth erupt 7-9mon
    • wean 1 yr
  11. nutritional considerations
    Toddler
    • eats most foods / 3 Meals day
    • dexterity improves/independence shines
    • caloric needs decreases
    • mealtime habits form
  12. How to introduce solid foods to baby
    • 4-6 mon introduce 1 at a time every 5 days
    • cereals (rice)
    • Fruits
    • Vegetables (Yellow before Green)
    • Strained Meats
  13. Nutritional Considerations
    Pre-Schooler
    • Eats adult foods
    • very active (does want to slow down to eat)
    • may enjoy help prepare food
    • requires 1500mL fluid per day
  14. Nutritional Considerations
    School Age Child
    • need balanced diet
    • 3 meals and 2 snacks
    • need protein rich food for breakfast
    • learn food habit from parents
    • poor eating habit = obesity
  15. Nutritional Considerations
    Adolescent
    • need protein, calcium, vit D, B, Iron (especially during growth spurts)
    • 1 qt milk a day 1200-1500mL calcium
    • active lifestyles = irregular eating & sleeping habits
    • food choices related to physical, social emotional factors
    • nutrition related problems= obesity, anorexia, bulimia, low self-esteem, depression
  16. nutritional considerations
    young adult
    • habit established lay foundation for life
    • female need adequate iron
    • calcium and vit d maintain bones
  17. Nutritional considerations
    Middle age adults
    • eat healthy
    • post menopausal need calcium, vit D
    • antioxidant important Vit A,C,E
    • Metabolism Slows
    • gastric acids free and slow cause heartburn indigestion
  18. nutritional considerations
    elders
    • eat healthy
    • fewer calories needed
    • slower metabolism
    • may need more fiber and bulk
  19. what is spirituality?
    • everything one is, one knows, one does
    • includes persons sense of meaning and purpose
    • more than religion, but can include religion
    • higher experience
  20. examples of spiritual needs
    • R/T Self
    • R/T Others
    • R/T Ultimate Other
    • R/T Groups
  21. Spiritual Needs
    R/T Self
    • need for meaning and purpose
    • to express creativity, hope, dignity
    • transcend life challenges
    • to prepare for and accept death
  22. examples of spiritual needs
    R/T Others
    • need to forgive
    • cope with loss of loved ones
  23. Examples of spiritual needs
    R/T Ultimate Other
    • need to be certain there is a God or ultimate power
    • need to worship
    • God is loving and present
  24. examples of spiritual needs
    R/T Groups
    • to contribute/ improve ones community
    • be respected/valued
    • to know what to give and what and when to take
  25. characteristics of spiritual distress
    • lack of hope, meaning or purpose
    • being/feeling abandoned
    • anger towards God
    • refuses to interact with friends/family
    • sudden changes in spiritual practices
    • requests spiritual leader
    • no interest in nature, worship
  26. spiritual development stages
    0-3 years
    • acquire spiritual qualities of trust, hope and love
    • foundation of Spiritual development
  27. Spiritual Development
    3-7 years
    • Fantasy filled
    • make believe is experienced as reality
  28. spiritual Development
    7-12
    • child accepts stories and believes literally
    • learns beliefs and culture
    • understands death mean inevitable loss
  29. spiritual development
    adolescents
    • spiritual beliefs help understand environment beyond the family
    • Generally conforms to beliefs of those around them
  30. spiritual development
    young adults
    begins development personal meaning for symbols of religion and faith
  31. spiritual development
    middle aged adults
    • increase respect for inner voice
    • attempts to reconcile contradictions in mind and experience
    • remain open to others truths
  32. spiritual development
    mid to late adulthood
    • able to believe in non-exclusive community
    • may work to resolve problems in society
  33. dietary beliefs
    orthodox jews
    • not allowed to eat shellfish or pork
    • Food is to be Kosher
  34. dietary beliefs
    Muslims
    no pork or alcohol
  35. dietary beliefs
    Mormons Church of Later Day Saints
    not allowed to drink Caffeinated or alcoholic beverages
  36. dietary beliefs
    older catholics
    do not eat meat of Friday
  37. Dietary Beliefs
    Buddhists and Hindus
    Vegetarians
  38. during assessment interview
    • look for clues (client and environment)
    • environment
    • behavior
    • verbalization
    • attitude
    • interpersonal relationship
  39. what is presence?
    Being present in the room but not focusing on the client
  40. what are the types of presence?
    • Presence
    • Partial Presence
    • Full Presence
    • Transcendent Presence
  41. what is Partial Presence?
    taking care of patients but not relating to them
  42. what is Full Presence?
    When Nurse is mentally and emotionally focusing on client
  43. what is Transcendent Presence?
    Physically, Mentally and Spiritually present for client
  44. Prayer Guidelines
    • Never for nurses benefit
    • never give false hope
    • never to substitute nurses self
  45. what are some barriers to nurses providing spiritual care?
    • insufficient time
    • lack of education
    • privacy of the client
    • lack of confidence
  46. when auscultating vascular sounds on abdomen
    what are you listening for and how
    • listening for Bruits or other abnormal sounds
    • with the bell
    • Aorta
    • renal
    • iliac
    • femoral
  47. steps of abdominal assessment
    • Inspection
    • Auscultation
    • Percussion
    • Palpitation
  48. what is the value of anticipatory grief
    when the thing you are grieving about actually occurs the grieving process is not as bad
  49. important steps when admin blood transfusion
    • determine clients allergies
    • administer immediately after receiving from blood bank
    • never add any meds to blood products
    • check cross-match with 2 nurses
  50. when is it ok to warm blood
    risk of hypothermic response only use specific blood warming equipment
  51. how long can you infuse each unit of blood
    each unit over 3-4 hours but no longer than 4
  52. key points to check
    • Drs Order
    • blood labels & Clients ID
    • Baseline Vital
    • #18 gauge needle
    • return each transfused bag to the lab
  53. when should tubing be changed when transfusing blood
    after each unit change tubing and filter
  54. when are severe reactions most likely to happen when transfusing blood
    in the first 15 mins or first 10cc of blood
  55. why get baseline VS
    to check patients tolerating blood

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