The scientific study of age-related changes in behavior, thinking, emotion, and personality.
What are Norms?
Average ages at which developmental milestones are reached.
What is Maturation?
The gradual unfolding of a genetically programmed sequential pattern of change.
What is the Lifespan perspective?
The current view of developmentalists that important changes occur throughout the entire human lifespan and that these changes must be interpreted in terms of the culture and context in which they occur.
What are physical domains?
Changes in size, shape, and characteristics of the body.
What is cognitive domain
Changes in thinking, memory, problem solving, and other intellectual skills
What is social domain?
Change in variables that are associated with the relationship of an individual to other.
Age of Early Childhood
Age of middle childhood
Age of adolescence
Age of early adulthood
What is Plasticity?
When individuals of all ages possess the capacity for positive change in response to environmental demands.
The debate about the relative contributions of biological processes and experiential factors to development.
What are stages?
Qualitatively distinct periods of development.
What are normative age-graded changes?
Changes that are common to every member of a species.
What are normative history-graded changes?
Changes that occur in most members of a cohort as a result of factors at work during a specific, well-defined historical period.
What are nonnormative changes?
Changes that result from unique, unshared events.
Example of nonnormative change?
What is a cohort?
A group of individuals who are born within some fairly narrow span of years and thus share the same historical experiences at the same times in their lives. Successive cohorts may have different life experiences.
Example of vulnerability?
Tendency toward emotional irritability or alcoholism/allergy/etc.
Fixations as adults: Vanity, recklessness, sexual dysfunction
Characteristics of Freud's Latency stage?
Age: 6 - 12
Focus of Libido: None
Developmental Task: Developing defense mechanisms
Fixations as adults: None
Characteristics of Freud's Genital stage?
Age: 12 years
Focus of Libido: Genitals
Developmental Task: Mature sexual intimacy
Fixations as adults: If previous stages successful, develops mature sexuality.
What are fixations?
Behaviors that reflect unresolved problems and unmet needs.
What is the Oedipus complex?
Involves a conflict between a boy's affection for his mother and his fear of his father.
What is the Electra complex?
Pits a girl's bond with her father against her anxiety over the potential loss of her mother's love.
What are the psychosocial stages?
Erik Erikson's eight stages, or crises, of personality development in which inner instincts interact with outer cultural and social demands to shape personality. Individual must resolve a crisis to achieve a healthy personality.
Trust versus mistrust stage
(birth to 1 year) depends on the reliability of the care and affection infants receive from their primary caretaker. (Hope)
autonomy versus shame and doubt
(1-3) (Will) express their independence. To resolve: parent must encourage child to function independently with regard to self-care skills (dress themselves).
Initiative versus guilt
(3-6) (Purpose) develop a sense of social initiative. Child needs opportunities to interact with peers.
industry versus inferiority
(6-12) (Competence) child focuses on acquiring culturally valued skills. To resolve: children need support and encouragement from adults.
Identity versus role confusion
(12-18) (Fidelity) Transition from childhood to adulthood. To resolve: examine their identity and roles they occupy.
Risk: adolescent will suffer from confusion.
Intimacy versus isolation
(18-30) (Love) Young adult builds on the identity established in adolescence to confront this crisis. 'Fuse identity'.
Generativity versus stagnation
(30 - late adulthood) (Care) Shaped by the realization that death is inevitable. Rearing of child can achieve sense of generativity. Failing this may result in sense of stagnation.
Integrity versus despair
(late adulthood) (wisdom) The goal is acceptance of one's life in preparation for death in order to avoid a sense of despair.
What is behaviorism?
The view that defines development in terms of behavior changes caused by environmental influences.
What are learning theories?
Theories asserting that development results from an accumulation of experiences.
John Watson, Ivan Pavlov, B.F. Skinner, Albert Bandura
What is classical conditioning?
(Pavlov) learning that results from the association of stimuli.
What is operant conditioning?
learning to repeat or stop behaviors because of their consequences. (skinner)
What is reinforcement?
Anything that follows a behavior and causes it to be repeated.
What is punishment?
Anything that follows a behavior and causes it to stop.
What is extinction?
The gradual elimination of a behavior through repeated nonreinforcement.
What is observational learning, or modeling?
Learning that results from seeing a model reinforced or punished for a behavior.
What are Cognitive Theories?
Theories that emphasize mental processes in development, such as logic and memory.
Jean Piaget, Lev Vygotsky.
What is a scheme?
In Piaget's theory, an internal cognitive structure that provides an individual with a procedure to use in a specific circumstance.
What is assimilation?
The process of using a scheme to make sense of an event or experience.
What is accommodation?
Changing a scheme as a result of some new information.
What is equilibration?
The process of balancing assimilation and accommodation to create schemes that fit the environment.