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Distinguish between self-esteem and self-efficacy.
- - Self-esteem: one's overall self-evaluation; how one feels about themselves. It can be boosted by positive things such as personal achievements and praise or lowered by negative things such as prolonged unemployment or a bad hair day.
- - Self-efficacy: one's belief in their ability to perform a task. Can be boosted through things such as trainings and building cognitive, social, linguistic, and or physical skills.
Define organizational identification. What are advantages and disadvantages?
- - Organizational identification: when an individual's self-identity becomes integrated with the organization's values and beliefs.
- - Advantages: employees are likely to be more loyal, committed, and harder working.
- - Disadvantages: sometimes employees identify too closely with the employer and ignore their ethical reasoning. They suspend their critical thinking and lose their objectivity causing a lack in constructive conflict within group thinking.
List and explain the Big Five personality dimensions. Describe their relationship with job performance.
- 5 personality dimensions reveal a person's unique personality profile.
- 1) extraversion: outgoing, talkative, social, assertive
- 2) agreeableness: trusting, good natures, cooperative, soft hearted
- 3) conscientiousness: dependable, responsible, persistent, achievement oriented
- 4) emotional stability: relaxed, secure, unworried
- 5) openness to experience: intellectual, imaginative, curious, broad-minded.
- - Conscientiousness had the strongest positive correlation with job performance and training performance. Extraversion correlated positively with promotions, salary level, and career satisfaction.
What is a proactive personality? How does it relate to resiliency?
- - Proactive personality: action-oriented person who shows initiative and perseveres to change things. Tends to have internal locus of control, attributing outcomes to their own actions. Valuable human capital for organization.
- - Relates to resiliency in that they are eager to work and will easily bounce back if something goes wrong.
Define emotional contagion and emotional labor with examples.
- - Emotional contagion: "catching" another person's mood, either good or bad. Ex: go into work happy and run into your boss who is in a bad mood, and starts to bark orders for you to get on right away. You too are now in a bad mood.
- - Emotional labor: masking your feelings and putting on a "happy face" when dealing with others. Overtime, if these bottled emotions are not properly dealt with, emotional repression and burn out can occur. Ex: you are having some family issues at home that have you worried and upset, however you work in customer service and can not show these emotions to the customers so you have to suppress them and show a positive emotion.
Describe the types of value conflict that are related to an individual's attitudes, job satisfaction, turnover, performance, and counterproductive behavior.
3 types of value conflict: 1) intrapersonal value conflict: conflict within one's self; when personal values conflict with each other. 2) Interpersonal value conflict: conflict between people; it is often at the core of personality conflicts and can negatively affect one's career. 3) Individual-organization value conflict: conflict between an individual and their organization; their personal values collide with the organization's values.
What is an attitude? Explain the three components of an attitude. How are they related to cognitive dissonance?
- - attitude: learned predisposition toward a given object. relate only to behavior directed toward something specific.
- - 3 components: 1) affective component: your initial reaction and how you feel about the situation. 2) cognitive component: your belief about the situation and what you learn. 3) behavioral component: how you intend to act or behave toward the situation; what you plan to do.
- - cognitive dissonance occurs when your attitudes are inconsistent with your behaviors.
Describe and explain the three determinants of intention explained by Ajzen.
- 1) Attitude toward the behavior: how favorable one's judgment of the behavior is.
- 2) subjective norm: perceived social acceptance to either perform or not perform the behavior.
- 3) perceived behavioral control: the degree of difficulty to perform the behavior and the reflection of one's past experience and anticipation of future impediments/obstacles.
Describe and explain the five causes of job satisfaction.
- JS is an affective or emotional response to one's job. 5 causes:
- 1) need fulfillment: satisfaction is determined by the extent to which job characteristics allow an individual to fulfill needs.
- 2) discrepancies: satisfaction is a result of met expectations.
- 3) value attainment: satisfaction results from the perception that a job allows for fulfillment of important work values.
- 4) Equity: satisfaction is determined by how fairly and individual is treated at work.
- 5) Dispositional/genetic components: satisfaction is partly a function of both personal traits and genetic factors.
Describe and explain the process by which stereotypes are formed and maintained.
- - Stereotype is a set of beliefs about the characteristics of a group.
- Involves 4 steps: 1) categorizing people into groups based on characteristics 2) inferring all people within a group have the same traits 3) form expectations and interpret behaviors based on our stereotypes 4) maintain stereotypes by overestimating the frequency of stereotyped behaviors being displayed, incorrectly explaining expected and unexpected behaviors, and differentiating minority individuals from oneself.
Describe and explain how managers can reduce stereotypes influence within the organization.
- 1) inform the workforce about stereotyping through education and training programs.
- 2) encourage participation in the effort to reduce stereotypes.
- 3) identify valid individual differences that differentiate between successful and unsuccessful performers.
- 4) remove promotional barriers
Describe and explain how the self-fulfilling prophecy operates. How can it be used for motivation?
- - SFP is that someone's high expectations for another person results in higher performance for that person.
- - Raising managers expectations for individuals performance can result in higher levels of achievement/productivity.
- - The supervisor's level of expectancy determines their style of leadership, the higher expectation the better leadership, which leads to the amount of self-expectancy subordinates have. Good leadership leads to higher self-expectancies which lead to higher motivation and ultimately increase performance and supervisory expectations.
Describe and explain the practical applications of the attribution models in the workplace.
- - Behavior attributed to either internal factors of a person or external factors of the environment.
- - Attributions are made after gathering information about 3 dimensions of behavior: 1) consensus: the comparison of one's behavior to that of a peer, 2) distinctiveness: comparison of one's behavior on one task to behavior on another task, 3) consistency: judgement if one's performance on a task is consistent over time
Describe fundamental attribution bias and self-serving bias.
- - Fundamental attribution bias: reflects one's tendency to attribute another behavior to his/her personal characteristics as opposed to situational factors.
- - self-serving bias: an individual takes more personal responsibility for success than failure.
Compare and contrast the need theories of Maslow, Alderfer, and McClelland.
- - Maslow: need hierarchy theory that states five basic needs- physiological, safety, love, esteem, and self-actualization- influence behavior. proposed that the needs are in a stair-step fashion; one physiological needs are fulfilled, safety needs emerge and so on.
- - Alderfer: small set of core needs to explain behavior than Maslow- existence needs (lowest), relatedness needs, and growth needs (highest). believes more than one need may be present at a time. states there is a frustration-regression component in that frustration of higher order needs can influence desire of lower order needs.
- - McClelland: 3 needs: need for achievement- desire to accomplish something difficult, need for affiliation- desire to spend time in social relationships and activities, and need for power- desire to influence, teach, coach, or encourage others to achieve.
Describe and explain McClelland's three needs. Discuss the managerial implications of the needs.
- 1) need for achievement is the desire to accomplish something difficult.
- 2) need for affiliation is the desire to build and maintain relationships
- 3) need for power is the desire to influence, coach, or encourage others to achieve.
- - Adults can be trained to increase their achievement motivation therefore organizations should consider the benefits of providing trainings. These three needs should be considered during the selection process for better placement.
Describe and explain the factors of Herzberg's motivator-hygiene theory.
- - found clusters of factors associated with job satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
- -The first cluster, motivators, are associated with factors in the work content such as strong effort and good performance. Satisfying motivators include jobs that offer achievement, recognition, stimulating work, responsibility, and advancement.
- -The second cluster, hygiene, are associated with factors in the work context. These include company policies, salary, administration, technical supervision, interpersonal relationships with supervisor, and working conditions.
Describe and explain the three concepts within Vroom's model.
- -Vroom's expectancy model holds that people are motivated to behave in ways that produce valued outcomes.
- - 3 concepts within model are: 1) expectancy- the belief that effort leads to a specific level of performance; influenced by self-esteem, self-efficacy, previous success, etc. 2) instrumentality- performance outcome perception that represents one's belief that a particular outcome is dependent on accomplishing a specific level of performance. 3) valence- the value of a reward or outcome; mirrors personal preferences.
Define a goal. Explain the motivational mechanisms of goal-setting.
- Goal: what an individual is trying to accomplish.
- - 4 motivational mechanisms of goal-setting: 1) goals direct attention, 2) goals require effort; they motivate us, 3) goals increase persistence, 4) goals foster the development and application of task strategies and action plans.