Chemistry Chapter 4

Card Set Information

Author:
tiffanydawnn
ID:
24038
Filename:
Chemistry Chapter 4
Updated:
2010-06-18 14:48:43
Tags:
chemistry chapter
Folders:

Description:
Forces Between Particles
Show Answers:

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview

The flashcards below were created by user tiffanydawnn on FreezingBlue Flashcards. What would you like to do?


  1. valence electrons
    • electrons in the outermost shell
    • group # on periodic table
    • noble gases have complete octet of 8 (except He - 2)
  2. Lewis Structure
    valence electrons represented as dots around elemental symbol
  3. Octet Rule
    atoms will gain/lose electrons to achieve 8 outer electrons
  4. simple ion
    atom that has acquired a net +/- charge by losing/gaining one or more electrons

    • Na -> Na+ + e-
    • Sodium (11 e-) = sodium ion (10 e-) + 1 e-

    • Cl + e- -> Cl-
    • Chlorine (17 e-)+ 1 e- = chloride (18 e-)
  5. Cation Names
    "element" ion

    sodium ion, magnesium ion
  6. Transition Metal Ions
    can form more than one positive ion

    • Cu -> 1+ 2+
    • Fe -> 2+ 3+
    • Sn -> 2+ 4+
    • Pb -> 2+ 4+
    • Ag -> 1+
    • Zn -> 2+
  7. Transition Metal Stock Names
    element name with roman numeral charge in parenthesis

    • Fe2+: iron (II) ion
    • Fe3+: iron (III) ion
  8. Transition Metals -ic/-ous Names
    • -ic for higher charge
    • -ous for lower charge

    • Fe2+: ferrous
    • Fe3+: ferric
  9. Transition Metal Stems
    • copper: cupr
    • iron: ferr
    • tin: stann
    • lead: plumb
  10. Anion Names
    "stem-ide" ion

    chloride ion, phosphide ion
  11. chemical bond
    attractive force that holds atoms together in molecules and ions together in crystals
  12. ionic bond
    chemical bond that holds together + charged ion (metal) and - charged ion (non-metal)
  13. ionic compound
    • substance formed when ionic bonds form
    • named using metal (cation) then nonmetal (anion)
    • neutral - overall charge is zero
  14. salt
    ionic compound containing any cation except H+ and any anion except OH-
  15. binary ionic compound
    ionic compound formed by a cation and an anion

    • NaCl
    • AlBr3
  16. Binary Ionic Compound Names
    name of metal + stem of nonmetal-ide

    sodium chloride, aluminum bromide
  17. polyatomic ions
    • cluster of 2 or more atoms with overall charge
    • only 1 polyatomic cation - NH4+ (ammonium)
  18. -ate vs -ite
    polyatomic ions that contain oxygen atoms

    • -ate: more O atoms (SO42- - sulfate)
    • -ite: less O atoms (SO32- - sulfite)
  19. bi-
    prefix for hyrdrogen (does not mean 2)

    bicarbonate: HCO3-
  20. oxyanion
    • polyatomic ion that contains oxygen
    • can contain a different number of oxygen atoms

    • perchlorate: ClO4-
    • chlorate: ClO3-
    • chlorite: ClO2-
    • hypochlorite: ClO-
  21. covalent bond
    • chemical bond where atoms share valence electrons
    • 2 nonmetals
    • can occur between identical atoms (O2) or different atoms (H2O)
  22. nonpolar covalent bond
    • equal sharing of electrons
    • occurs between same kind of atoms

    H2, Cl2
  23. polar covalent bond
    • unequal sharing of electrons
    • occurs between atoms of different elements

    HF, SO3
  24. single bond
    2 shared electrons
  25. double bond
    4 shared electrons
  26. triple bond
    6 shared electrons
  27. electronegativity
    measure of the ability of an atom to attract shared electrons to itself in a covalent bond
  28. binary covalent compound
    atoms of two non-metallic elements sharing valence electron pair(s)

    • CCl4
    • CO2
  29. Binary Covalent Compound Naming
    • use prefixes to indicate number of atoms in each element
    • omit mono for first atom only

    • CCl4 - carbon tetrachloride
    • CO2 - carbon dioxide
    • N2O3 - dintirogen trioxide
  30. Prefixes
    • 1: mono
    • 2: di
    • 3: tri
    • 4: tetra
    • 5: penta
    • 6: hexa
    • 7: hepta
    • 8: octa
    • 9: nona
    • 10: deca
  31. diatomic molecules of the same element
    HI BrONClF

    H, I, Br, O N, Cl, F
  32. acid
    releases H+ ions when dissolved in water
  33. strong acid
    • completely ionizes in water
    • conducts electricity
  34. weak acid
    only a small amount ionizes in water

What would you like to do?

Home > Flashcards > Print Preview