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Education refers to...
the systematic, formal process through which specialized teachers transmit skills, knowledge, and values to students
An example of education in the USA is...
the formal education in elementary schools, secondary schools, high schools, colleges, and universities
Educational Attainment refers to...
the years of school a person has completed
Examples of educational attainment would be...
8th grade, high school diploma, associate degree, bachelor’s degree, master’s degree, or doctorate degree
Educational Achievement refers to...
that which a student has learned such as reading, writing, and mathematics
An example of educational achievement would be...
the manifest function of the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE) is to measure achievement in reading, writing, and mathematics
Social Reproduction refers to...
passing social and economic inequalities on from one generation to the next and thus perpetuating the existing stratification system
An example of social reproduction is when...
- well-to-do parents pass their money and property to their children as well as social and cultural advantages in the form of access to education that will assist their children;
- middle class parents tend to pass more social capital (that is, knowledge and skills) to their children than working class and lower class parents
when prestigious / Ivy League / private colleges allow a child of an alumni student admission into their college with a C average thus perpetuating the family's social status and wealth
Credentials refers to...
the educational requirements one needs to have to get a particular job
Credentials also has to do with the...
educational requirements to get many jobs are higher than they need to be to do the job and this has created a credentials race
An example is that credentials are often used as...
a screening mechanism to deny access to jobs to people
Degree Inflation refers to...
the outcomes of requiring people to have more and more education to get a particular job
An example of degree inflation is when...
a person may not need the degree to do the job, the person needs the degree to get the job
Tracking refers to...
ability grouping by clustering people together into classes or tracks
An example of tracking would be when...
some people get tracked into college prep courses while others get tracked into vocational educational courses
High-Stakes Testing refers to...
a particular test which will determine whether a person will get a particular high school diploma, college degree, and the like
Examples of High-Stakes Testing are...
- the California High School Exit Exam (CAHSEE);
- the SAT;
- the GRE;
- the state exam for nursing students
Bilingual Education refers to...
a program that allows students learning a second language to be educated in their first language until they reach a certain level in the second language
An example of Bilingual Education is...
a 10 year-old student from Japan will be instructed in Japanese until the student reaches a certain level in the second language
Violence in the Schools refers to...
physical assault in educational settings
A study by the U.S. Department of Education in 2010 found that (1)__% of all public schools have had at least one episode of crime that was reported to the police.
The same study found that (2)__% of all public schools had at least one serious violent crime incident.
Examples of violence in schools are when...
- one student commits a physical assault on another student;
- one student engages in bullying against another student and it involves a physical assault
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