Bio 115 exam 2

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  1. Fermintation
    A catabolic process that makes a limited amount of ATP from glucose ( or other organic molecules) without an electron transport chain and that produces a characteristic end product, such as ethyl alcohol or lactic acid.
  2. cellular respiration
    The catabolic pathways of aerobic and anaerobic respiration, which break down organic molecules and use an electron transport chain for production of ATP.
  3. Aerobic repiration
    A catabolic pathway for organic molecules, using oxygen as the final electron acceptor in a transport chain and ultimately generate ATP. This is the most efficient catabolic pathway and is carried out by most eukaryotic cells and many prokaryotic organisms
  4. Redox reactions
    A chemical reaction involving the complete or partial transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another; short for reduction-oxidation reaction
  5. Oxidation
    The release or partial loss of electrons from a substance involved in a redox reaction
  6. Reduction
    The complete or partial addition of electrons to a substance involved in a redox reaction
  7. NAD+
    Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, a coenzyme that cycles easily between oxidized (NAD+) and reduced (NADH) states, thus acting as an electron carrier
  8. electron transport chain
    A sequence of electron carrier molecules (membrane proteins) that shuttles electrons down a series of redox reactions that realease energy used to make ATP
  9. glycolysis
    A series of reactions that ultimately splits glucose into pyruvate. Glycolysis occurs in amost all living cells, serving as the starting point for fermentation or cellular respiration.
  10. citric acid cycle
    A chemical cycle involving eight steps that completes the metabolic breakdown of glucose molecules begun in glycolysis by oxidizing acetyl CoA(derived from pryruvate) to carbon dioxide; occurs within the mitochondrion in eukaryotic cells and in the cytosol of prokaryotes; togerther with pyruvate oxidation, the second major stage in cellular respiration
  11. oxidative phosphorylation
    the production of ATP using energy derived form the redox reactions of an electron transport chain; third major stage in cellular respiration
  12. acetyl CoA
    Acetyl coenzyme A; the entry compound of the citric acid cycle in cellular respiration, formed from fragment of pyruvate attached to a coenzyme
  13. proton-motive force
    The potential energy stored in the form of proton electrochemical gradient, generated by the pumping of hydrogen ions (H+) across a biological membrane during chemiosmosis.
  14. ATP synthase
    A complex of several membrane protiens that functions in chemiosmosis with adjacent electron transport chain, using the energy of a hydrogen ion (proton) concentration gradient to make ATP. ATP synthases are found in the inner mitochondrial membranes of eukaryotic cells and in the plasma membranes of prokaryotes
  15. chemiosmosis
    An energy-coupling mechanism that uses energy stored in the form of hydrogen ion gradient across a membrane to drive cellular work, such as the synthesis of ATP. Under aerobic conditions, most ATP synthesis occurs by chemiosmosis
  16. alcohol fermentation
    Glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to ethyl alcohol, regenerating NAD+ and releasing carbon dioxide
  17. Lactic acid fermentation
    Glycolysis followed by the reduction of pyruvate to lactate, regenerating NAD+ with no release of carbon dioxide.
  18. beta oxidation
    A metabolic sequence that breaks fatty acids down to two-carbon fragments that enter the citric acid cycle as acetyl CoA
  19. autotrophic
    An organism that obtains organic food molecules without eating other organisms or substances derived from other organisms. Autotrophs use energy form the sun or from oxidation of inorganic substances to make organic molecules from inorganic ones.
  20. Chloroplasts
    a organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds  from carbon dioxide and water
  21. thylakoids
    A flattened, membranous sac inside a chloroplast. Thylakoids often exist in stacks called grana that are interconnected; their membranes contain molecular "machinery" used to convert light energy to chemical energy
  22. Photosynthesis
    The conversion of light energy to chemical energy that is stored in sugars or other organic compounds; occurs in plants, algae, and certain prokaryotes
  23. light reactions
    The first two major stages in photosynthesis (preceding the Calvin cycle). These reactions, which occur in on the thylakiod membranes of the chloroplast or on membranes of certain prokaryotes, convert solar energy to chemical energy of ATP and NADPH, releasing oxygen in the process
  24. Calvin cycle
    • The second of two major stages in photosynthesis (following the light reactions) involving fixation of atmospheric CO2 and reduction of fixed carbon into carbohydrate.
  25. Stroma
    The dense fluid within the chloroplast surrounding the thylakoid membrane and continuing ribosomes and DNA; involved in synthesis of organic molecules
  26. visible light
    the portion of electromagnetic spectrum that can be detected as various colors by the human eye, ranging in wavelength from about 380nm to about 750nm
  27. wavelengths
    the distance between crests of waves, sch as those of the electromagnetic spectrum
  28. chloropyll a
    photosynthetic pigment that participates directly in light reactions, which convert solar energy into chemical energy.
  29. photon
    a quantum, or discrete quantity, of light energy that behaves as if it were a particle
  30. photosystem
    A light-capturing unit located in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast or in the membrane of some prokaryotes, consisting of a reaction-center complex surrounded by numerous light -harvesting complexes. There are two types of photosystems, I and II; they absorb light best at different wavelengths.
  31. reaction-center complex
    A complex of proteins associated with a special pair of chlorophyll a molecules and a primary electron acceptor. Located in the photosystem, this complex triggers light reactions of photosynthesis. Excited by light energy, the pair of chlorophylls donate an electron to the primary electron accpetor, which passes an electron to an electron transport chain.
  32. light-harvesting complexes
    A complex of proteins associated with pigment molecules (including clorophyll a, clorophyll b, caritenoids) that capture light energy and transfers it to reaction-center pigments in a photosystem.
  33. Primary electron acceptor
    I the thylakoid membrane of a chloroplast or in the membrane of some prokaryotes, a specilized molecule that shares the reaction-center complex with a pair of chloropyll a molecules an that accepts an electron from them.
  34. photosystem II 
    One of two light capturing units in a chloroplasts thylakoid membrane of some prokaryotes; it has two molecules of P680 chlorophyll a at its reaction center.
  35. Photosystem I
    A light-capturing unit in a chloroplasts thylakoid or in the membrane of some prokaryotes; it has two molecules of P700 chlorophyll a at its reaction center.
  36. Linear electron flow
    A route electrons flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involes both photosystems (I and II) and produces ATP, NADPH, and O2 The net electron flow is from H2O to NADP+
  37. Cyclic electron flow
    A route of elctron flow during the light reactions of photosynthesis that involves only photosystem I and produces ATP but no NADPH or O2
  38. G3P
    Glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate A three-carbon carbohydrate that is the direct product of the Calvin cycle; it is also an intermediate in glycolysis 
  39. C3 plants
    • A plant that uses the Calvin cycle for the intial steps that incorporate CO2 into organic material, forming a three-carbon compound as the first stable intermediate
  40. C4 plants 
    A plant in which the Calvin cycle is preceded by reactions that incorporate CO2 into a four-carbon compound, the end product of which supplies COfor the Calvin cycle.
  41. photorespiration 
    A metabolic pathway that consumes oxygen and ATP, releases carbon dioxide, and decreases photosynthetic output. Photorespiration generally occurs on hot, dry, bright days, when stroma close and the O2/CO2 ratio in the leaf increases, favoring the binding of O2 rather than CO2 by rubisco
  42. bundle-sheath cell
    • In C4 plants, a type of phtosynthetic cell arranged into tightly packed sheaths around the veins of the leaf
  43. CAM plants
    A plant that uses crassulacean acid metabolism, an adaptation for photosythesis in arid conditions. In this process, carbon dioxide entering open stroma during the night is converted into organinc acids, which release CO2 for the Calvin cycle during the day when the stroma are closed
  44. cell division
    the reproduction of cells
  45. cell cycle
    An ordered sequence of events in the life of the cell, from its origin in the division of a parent cell until its own division into two. The eukaryotic cell cycle is composed of interphase (including G1 S G2 subphases) and M phase (including mitosis and cytokinesis)
  46. Genome
    The genetic material of an organism or virus; the complete complement of an organism or virus's genes along with its noncoding nucleic acid sequences
  47. Chromosomes
    A cellular structure carrying genitic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins. (A bacterial chromosome usually consists of a single circular DNA molecule and associated proteins. it is found in the nucleoid region, which is not membrane bounded.)
  48. chromatin
    the complex of DNA and proteins that make up eukaryotic chromosomes. When the cell is not dividing. Chromatin exists in its dispersed form, as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope
  49. gametes
    A haploid reproductive cell, such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
  50. somatic cells
    Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg or their precursors.
  51. sister chromatids
    two copies if a duplicated chromosome attached to each other by proteins at the centromere and, sometimes, along the arms. While joined, two sister chromatids make up one chromosome. Chromatids are eventually separated during mitosis or meosis I
  52. centromeres
    In a duplicated chromosome, the region on each sister chromatid where they are most closely attached to each other by proteins that bind to specific DNA sequences; this close attachment causes a constriction in the condensed chromosome. (A uncondensed, unduplicated chromosome has a single centromere, identified by its DNA sequence)
  53. mitosis
    A process of nuclear division in eukaryotic cells conventionally divided into five stages; propahse, prometaphase, metaphase, anaphase, and telephase. Mitosis conserves chromsome number by allocating replicated chromosomes equally to each of the daughter nuclei
  54. cytokinesis
    The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells immediately after mitosis, meiosis I, or meiosis II.
  55. interphase
    The period of the cell cycle when the cell is not dividing. During interphase, cellular metabolic activity is high, chromosomes and organelles are duplicated, and cell size may increase. Interphase accounts for 90% of the cell cycle.
  56. G1
    The first gap, or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase before DNA synthesis begins.
  57. S
    the synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of inter phase during which DNA is replicated
  58. G2
    the second gap or growth phase, of the cell cycle, consisting of the portion of interphase after DNA synthesis occurs
  59. mitotic phase
    the phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis
  60. mitotic spindle
    An assemblage of microtubles and associated proteins that is involved in the movement of chromosomes during mitosis
  61. centrosomes
    A structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells that function as a microtuble-organizing center and is important during cell division. A centrosome has two centrioles
  62. asters
    a radial array of short micro tubules that extends from each chromosome toward the plasma membrane in an animal cell undergoing mitosis
  63. kinetochores
    A structure of proteins attached to the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.
  64. metaphase plate
    An imaginary structure located at a plane midway between the two poles of a cell in metaphase in which the centromeres of all duplicated chromosomes are located.
  65. cleavage
    the process of cytokinesis in animal cells, characterized by pinching of the plasma membrane
  66. cell plate
    A membrane bounded, flattened sac located at the mid line of a dividing plant cell, inside which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis
  67. binary fission
    A method of asexual reproduction by "division in half." in prokaryotes, binary fission does nit involve mitosis, but in single celled eukaryotes that undergo binary fission, mitosis is part if the process
  68. cell cycle control system
    A cyclically operating set of molecules in the eukaryotic cell that both triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle
  69. cyclins
    A cellular protein that occurs in a cyclically fluctuating concentration and that plays an important role in regulating the cell cycle.
  70. cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks)
    A protein kinase that is active only when attached to a particular cyclin
  71. checkpoints
    A control point in the cell cycle where stop and go-ahead signals can regulate the cycle
  72. density-dependent inhibition
    The phenomenon observed in animal cells that causes them to stop dividing when they come into contact with one another.
  73. anchorage dependence
    the requirement that a cell must be attached to a substratum in order to initiate cell division
  74. malignant tumors
    A cancerous tumor containing cells that have significant genetic and cellular changes and are capable of invading and surviving in new sites. Malignant tumors can impair the function of one or more organs
  75. metastasis
    The spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site.
  76. prophase
    the first stage of mitosis, in which chromatid condenses into discrete chromosomes visible with a light microscope, the mitotic spindle begins to form, and the nucleolus disapears but the nucleus remains intact
  77. prometaphase
    the second stage of mitosis, in which the nuclear envelop fragments and the spindle microtubles attach to kinetochores of the chromsomes
  78. metaphase
    the third stage of mitosis in which the spindle completes and the chromosome, attached to mirotubles at their kinetochores are all aligned at the metaphase plate
  79. anaphase
    the fourth stage of mitosis in which the chromatids of each chromosome have separated and the daughter chromosome are moving to the pole of the cell
  80. telophase
    The fifth and final stage of mitosis in which daughter nuclei are forming and cytokinesis has typically begun
  81. gene
    A discrete unit of hereditary information consisting of a specific nucleotide sequence in DNA (or RNA, in some viruses)
  82. locus
    A specific place along the length of a chromosome where a given gene is located.
  83. asexual reproduction
    the generation of offspring from a single parent that occurs without the fusion of gametes (by budding, division of a single cell, or division of the entire organism into two or more parts). In most cases, the offspring are genetically identical to the parent
  84. sexual reproduction
    A type of reproduction in which two parents give rise to offspring that have  unique combinations of genes inherited from both parents via the gametes
  85. karyotype
    A display of the chromosomes pairs of a cell aranged by size and shape
  86. diploid
    A cell containing two sets of chromosomes (2n), one set inherited from each parent.
  87. homologus chromosomes
    A pair of chromosomes of the same length, centromere position, and staining pattern that possess genes for the same characters at corresponding loci. one homologous chromosome is inherited from the dad and one form ma.
  88. autosomes
    A chromosome that is nor directly involved in determining sex
  89. sex chromosomes
    chromosome that determines sex
  90. life cycle
    the generation-to-generation sequence of stages in the reproductive history of an organism
  91. haploid 
    a cell contaning only one set of chromosomes
  92. meiosis
    A modified type of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms consisting of two rounds of cell division but only one round of DNA replication. it results with haploid cells
  93. fertilization
    the union of haploid cells to produce a zygote.
  94. zygote
    the diploid cell produce by the union of haploid gametes during fertilization; a fertilized egg
  95. meiosis I
    the first division of a s stage-two process of cell division in sexually reproducing organisms that results in cells with half the number if chromosome sets as the original cell
  96. synapsis
    the paring and physical connection of duplicated homologous chromosomes during prophase I of meiosis
  97. crossing over
    the reciprocal exchange of genetic material between nonsister chromatids during prophase I of meiosis
  98. chiasmata
    the X-shaped microscopically visable region where crossing over has occurred earlier in propahse I between homologus nonsister chromatids. Chiasmata become visible after synapsis ends, with two homologs remaining associated due to sister chromitid cohesion
  99. recombinant chromosomes
    A chromosome created when crossing over combines DNA from two parents into a single chromosome.
  100. law of segregation
  101. alleles
  102. monohybrids
  103. heterozygotes
  104.  dominant allele
  105. recessive allele
  106. Homozygotes
  107. true-breeding
  108. law of independent assortment
  109. diyhybrids
  110. multiplication rule
  111. addition rule
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Bio 115 exam 2
2013-10-16 01:20:39
Bio 115 exam

Bio 115 exam 2
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