Bio 1510 exam 2.txt

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Bio 1510 exam 2.txt
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  1. What does Tetravalent mean?
    Able to form four bonds.
  2. What are the functional groups?
    • Hydroxyl
    • Carbonyl
    • Carboxyl
    • Amino
    • Sulfhydryl
    • Phosphate
    • Methyl
  3. What is the name of the Hydroxyl functional group?
    • Alcohol
    • Their specific names usually end in -ol
  4. What is the name of the Carbonyl functional group?
    • Ketones
    • Aldehydes
  5. When is a Carbonyl group a Ketone?
    If the carbonyl group is within a carbon skeleton
  6. When is the Carbonyl group an Aldehyde?
    If the Carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeleton.
  7. What is the name of the Carboxyl functional group?
    Carboxylic acid or organic acid
  8. What is the name of the Amino functional group?
    Amines
  9. What is the name of the Sulfhydryl functional group?
    Thiols
  10. What is the name of the Phosphate functional group?
    Organic phosphates
  11. What is the name of the Methyl functional group?
    Methylated compounds
  12. What are the functional properties of the Hydroxyl group?
    • Its polar as a result of the elections spending more time neat the electronegative oxygen atom
    • Can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, helping dissolve organic compounds such as sugar.
  13. What are the functional properties of the Carbonyl group?
    • Its a ketone and an aldehyde may be structural isomer with different properties, as is the case for acetone and propanal
    • Ketone and aldehyde groups are also found in sugars, giving rise to two major groups of sugars: Ketoses (containing ketone groups) and aldoses (containing aldehyde groups)
  14. What are the functional properties of the Carboxyl group?
    • Acts as an acid; can donate an H+ because the covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar.
    • Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1- and called carboxylate ion.
  15. What is a functional properties of the Amino Acid?
    Acts as a base; can pick up an H+from the surrounding solution (water, in living organisms)
  16. What are the functional properties of the Phosphate group?
    • Contributes negative charge to the molecule of which it is a part (2-when at the end of a molecule, as above; 1 - when located internally in a chain of phosphate).
    • Molecules containing phosphate groups have the potential to react with water, releasing energy.
  17. What are the functional properties of the Methyl group?
    • Addition of a methyl group to DNA, or to molecules bound to DNA, affects the expression of genes.
    • Arrangement of methyl groups in male and female sex hormones affects their shape and function.
  18. What functional group forms Disulfide bonds?
    Thiol
  19. What functional group acts as an acid?
    The Carboxylic acid group
  20. What functional group is highly polar and may act as a weak acid?
    Alcohol
  21. What functional group may be a structural isomer of a ketone?
    Aldehyde
  22. What functional group acts as a base?
    Amine group
  23. What functional group Contributes a negative charge?
    Organic phosphate group
  24. What is the complexity and variety of organic molecules due to?
    The chemical versatility of carbon atoms.
  25. What functional group is commonly used in cells to transfer energy from one organic molecule to another?
    Phosphate group
  26. Hermann Kolbe's synthesis of an organic compound, acetic acid, from inorganic substances that had been prepared directly from pure elements was a significant milestone for what reason(s)?
    It proved that organic compounds could be synthesized from inorganic compounds and disproved the concepts of vitalism
  27. Why are hydrocarbons insoluble in water?
    The majority of their bonds are non polar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages.
  28. The experimental approach taken in current biological investigations presumes that ____?
    Living organisms can be understood in terms of the same physical and chemical laws that can be used to explain all natural phenomena
  29. variations in the reactive properties of different organic molecules are most closely associated with _____?
    The presence of absence of functional groups
  30. Vitalism gave way to mechanism, the view that ____?
    Physical and chemical laws govern living systems.
  31. Explain cis-trans isomers
    Cis-trans isomers differ in their spatial arrangement around inflexible double bonds
  32. What element is present in all organic molecules?
    Carbon
  33. What Functional group helps stabilize proteins by forming covalent cross-links within or between protein molecules?
    • -SH
    • Sulfhydryl group
  34. What is a polypeptide?
    A peptide, such as a small protein, containing many molecules of amino acids, typically between 10-100
  35. What are the structures of Proteins?
    • Primary
    • Secondary
    • Tertiary
    • Quaternary
  36. What is the primary structure of a protein?
    Sequence of AA
  37. What is the secondary structure of a protein?
    • Secondary structure forms when compounds form hydrogen bonds with each other giving shape.
    • Pleated sheets
    • Helix
  38. What is the Tertiary structure of a protein?
    • Interaction with side chains
    • Hydrophobic
    • Disulfide bonds
  39. What is the Quaternary structure of a protein?
    The 3D shape
  40. How many pairs of bases do Humans have?
    3.5 Billion
  41. What are the Purines?
    • Arginine
    • Guanine
  42. What are the pyrimidines?
    • Cytosine
    • Thymine
    • Uracil
  43. How many rings do Purines have?
    they are a double ring structure
  44. How many rings do Pyrmadines have?
    They are a single ring structure
  45. What does Arginine bond with?
    Thymine
  46. What does Guanine in DNA bond with?
    Cytosine
  47. What are the 4 Macromolecules
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
    • Carbs
    • Nucleic acids
  48. What is Dehydration synthesis?
    • Condensation (takes water out)
    • Inorganic (receiving energy)
  49. What is Hydrolysis?
    • Add H2O (breaks apart polymer)
    • Exergonic (gives energy)
  50. What is the difference between simple and complex carbs?
    • Simple:
    • - Monomer
    • Complex:
    • - Polymer
  51. What is a SEM?
    Scanning Electron Microscope
  52. What is a TEM?
    Transmition Electron Microscope
  53. What is a Eukaryotic cell?
    Animal and plant cells
  54. What is Endosymbiosis?
    A type of symbiosis in which one organism lives inside the other, the two typically behaving as a single organism. It is believed to be the means by which such organelles as mitochondria and chloroplasts arose within eukaryotic cells
  55. What are Mitochondria?
    A spherical or elongated organelle in the cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic cells, containing genetic material and many enzymes important for cell metabolism, including those responsible for the conversion of food to usable energy
  56. What are Prokaryotes?
    • Bacteria
    • Archaea
  57. What is Chromatin?
    • DNA and Proteins
    • X2 worth of DNA
  58. What is in the Nucleolus?
    • Ribosomes location
    • Make proteins
  59. What do all cells have?
    • Phospholipid bilayer (cell membrane)
    • Ribosomes
    • DNA
    • Cytoplasm
  60. What is a Protist?
    • Single cell
    • - Fungus
    • - Plants
    • - Animals
  61. What are the difference between cels and plants?
    • Cell wall
    • Plants have chloroplasts
    • Plants have a central vacuole
  62. What are Ribosomes?
    • Synthesis protein.
    • Only come together with mRNA to join small and large Ribosomes
  63. What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum?
    • The apparatus outside the Nucleus that receives protein from mRNA
    • Rough VS. Smooth
  64. What is Rough ER?
    • Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • Protein bound
  65. What is smooth ER?
    • Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • No bound proteins
    • Involved in synthesis of lipids
    • metabolism of Carbohydrates
    • Detoxification of drug and poisons
    • Storage of calcium ions
  66. What is the Endomembrane system?
    • 1- The Nuclear envelope
    • 2- ER
    • 3- Golgi Apparatus
    • 4- Lysosomes
    • 5- Various vesicles and vacuoles
  67. What is the Golgi Apparatus?
    • The Golgi apparatus receives proteins with carb tag from rough ER via vesicle
    • Cis face - receiving end
    • Trans face sent to where its going
  68. What is a Lysosome?
    • Phagocytosis
    • Formed from the Golgi Digest enzymes made in the ER
    • *Autophagy
    • -Self eating
    • Breakdown damaged ribosomes
  69. What is the central Vacuole in plants?
    It is an area in the middle of the cell for storage, mostly H2O
  70. What are Contractile and feeding Vacuoles?
    • Moves things around
    • Maintain homeostasis
  71. How doe Eukaryotes differ from Prokaryotes?
    • DNA in membrane bound nucleus
    • Membrane bound organelles
    • Typically bigger
    • More mitochondria
  72. Vacuole VS Lysosome
    • Vacuole store
    • Lysosomes destroy
  73. What are Microtubules?
    Microtubules are involved in intracellular movement
  74. What is an example of a Microtubule?
    • Cilia
    • Flagella
  75. What are the three parts of the Cytoskeleton?
    • Microtubules
    • Microfilaments
    • Intermediate Filaments
  76. What is the protein involved in Microtubules?
    Tubulin
  77. What is the protein involved in Microfilaments
    Actin
  78. What are the proteins involved in Intermediate Filaments?
    Several different proteins
  79. How large are Microfilaments?
    7nm
  80. How large are Intermediate filaments ?
    8-12nm
  81. What has a 9+3 arrangement?
    The basil body
  82. What has a 9+2 arrangement?
    Cilia and Flagella

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