Bio 1510 exam 2.txt
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What does Tetravalent mean?
Able to form four bonds.
What are the functional groups?
What is the name of the Hydroxyl functional group?
- Their specific names usually end in -ol
What is the name of the Carbonyl functional group?
When is a Carbonyl group a Ketone?
If the carbonyl group is within a carbon skeleton
When is the Carbonyl group an Aldehyde?
If the Carbonyl group is at the end of the carbon skeleton.
What is the name of the Carboxyl functional group?
Carboxylic acid or organic acid
What is the name of the Amino functional group?
What is the name of the Sulfhydryl functional group?
What is the name of the Phosphate functional group?
What is the name of the Methyl functional group?
What are the functional properties of the Hydroxyl group?
- Its polar as a result of the elections spending more time neat the electronegative oxygen atom
- Can form hydrogen bonds with water molecules, helping dissolve organic compounds such as sugar.
What are the functional properties of the Carbonyl group?
- Its a ketone and an aldehyde may be structural isomer with different properties, as is the case for acetone and propanal
- Ketone and aldehyde groups are also found in sugars, giving rise to two major groups of sugars: Ketoses (containing ketone groups) and aldoses (containing aldehyde groups)
What are the functional properties of the Carboxyl group?
- Acts as an acid; can donate an H+ because the covalent bond between oxygen and hydrogen is so polar.
- Found in cells in the ionized form with a charge of 1- and called carboxylate ion.
What is a functional properties of the Amino Acid?
Acts as a base; can pick up an H+from the surrounding solution (water, in living organisms)
What are the functional properties of the Phosphate group?
- Contributes negative charge to the molecule of which it is a part (2-when at the end of a molecule, as above; 1 - when located internally in a chain of phosphate).
- Molecules containing phosphate groups have the potential to react with water, releasing energy.
What are the functional properties of the Methyl group?
- Addition of a methyl group to DNA, or to molecules bound to DNA, affects the expression of genes.
- Arrangement of methyl groups in male and female sex hormones affects their shape and function.
What functional group forms Disulfide bonds?
What functional group acts as an acid?
The Carboxylic acid group
What functional group is highly polar and may act as a weak acid?
What functional group may be a structural isomer of a ketone?
What functional group acts as a base?
What functional group Contributes a negative charge?
Organic phosphate group
What is the complexity and variety of organic molecules due to?
The chemical versatility of carbon atoms.
What functional group is commonly used in cells to transfer energy from one organic molecule to another?
Hermann Kolbe's synthesis of an organic compound, acetic acid, from inorganic substances that had been prepared directly from pure elements was a significant milestone for what reason(s)?
It proved that organic compounds could be synthesized from inorganic compounds and disproved the concepts of vitalism
Why are hydrocarbons insoluble in water?
The majority of their bonds are non polar covalent carbon-to-hydrogen linkages.
The experimental approach taken in current biological investigations presumes that ____?
Living organisms can be understood in terms of the same physical and chemical laws that can be used to explain all natural phenomena
variations in the reactive properties of different organic molecules are most closely associated with _____?
The presence of absence of functional groups
Vitalism gave way to mechanism, the view that ____?
Physical and chemical laws govern living systems.
Explain cis-trans isomers
Cis-trans isomers differ in their spatial arrangement around inflexible double bonds
What element is present in all organic molecules?
What Functional group helps stabilize proteins by forming covalent cross-links within or between protein molecules?
What is a polypeptide?
A peptide, such as a small protein, containing many molecules of amino acids, typically between 10-100
What are the structures of Proteins?
What is the primary structure of a protein?
Sequence of AA
What is the secondary structure of a protein?
- Secondary structure forms when compounds form hydrogen bonds with each other giving shape.
- Pleated sheets
What is the Tertiary structure of a protein?
- Interaction with side chains
- Disulfide bonds
What is the Quaternary structure of a protein?
The 3D shape
How many pairs of bases do Humans have?
What are the pyrimidines?
How many rings do Purines have?
they are a double ring structure
How many rings do Pyrmadines have?
They are a single ring structure
What does Arginine bond with?
What does Guanine in DNA bond with?
What are the 4 Macromolecules
- Nucleic acids
What is Dehydration synthesis?
- Condensation (takes water out)
- Inorganic (receiving energy)
What is Hydrolysis?
- Add H2O (breaks apart polymer)
- Exergonic (gives energy)
What is the difference between simple and complex carbs?
- - Monomer
- - Polymer
What is a SEM?
Scanning Electron Microscope
What is a TEM?
Transmition Electron Microscope
What is a Eukaryotic cell?
Animal and plant cells
What is Endosymbiosis?
A type of symbiosis in which one organism lives inside the other, the two typically behaving as a single organism. It is believed to be the means by which such organelles as mitochondria and chloroplasts arose within eukaryotic cells
What are Mitochondria?
A spherical or elongated organelle in the cytoplasm of nearly all eukaryotic cells, containing genetic material and many enzymes important for cell metabolism, including those responsible for the conversion of food to usable energy
What is Chromatin?
- DNA and Proteins
- X2 worth of DNA
What is in the Nucleolus?
- Ribosomes location
- Make proteins
What do all cells have?
- Phospholipid bilayer (cell membrane)
What is a Protist?
- Single cell
- - Fungus
- - Plants
- - Animals
What are the difference between cels and plants?
- Cell wall
- Plants have chloroplasts
- Plants have a central vacuole
What are Ribosomes?
- Synthesis protein.
- Only come together with mRNA to join small and large Ribosomes
What is the Endoplasmic Reticulum?
- The apparatus outside the Nucleus that receives protein from mRNA
- Rough VS. Smooth
What is Rough ER?
- Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
- Protein bound
What is smooth ER?
- Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
- No bound proteins
- Involved in synthesis of lipids
- metabolism of Carbohydrates
- Detoxification of drug and poisons
- Storage of calcium ions
What is the Endomembrane system?
- 1- The Nuclear envelope
- 2- ER
- 3- Golgi Apparatus
- 4- Lysosomes
- 5- Various vesicles and vacuoles
What is the Golgi Apparatus?
- The Golgi apparatus receives proteins with carb tag from rough ER via vesicle
- Cis face - receiving end
- Trans face sent to where its going
What is a Lysosome?
- Formed from the Golgi Digest enzymes made in the ER
- -Self eating
- Breakdown damaged ribosomes
What is the central Vacuole in plants?
It is an area in the middle of the cell for storage, mostly H2O
What are Contractile and feeding Vacuoles?
- Moves things around
- Maintain homeostasis
How doe Eukaryotes differ from Prokaryotes?
- DNA in membrane bound nucleus
- Membrane bound organelles
- Typically bigger
- More mitochondria
Vacuole VS Lysosome
- Vacuole store
- Lysosomes destroy
What are Microtubules?
Microtubules are involved in intracellular movement
What is an example of a Microtubule?
What are the three parts of the Cytoskeleton?
- Intermediate Filaments
What is the protein involved in Microtubules?
What is the protein involved in Microfilaments
What are the proteins involved in Intermediate Filaments?
Several different proteins
How large are Microfilaments?
How large are Intermediate filaments ?
What has a 9+3 arrangement?
The basil body
What has a 9+2 arrangement?
Cilia and Flagella
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