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The two basic tissues of which the skin is composed are __(a)__ tissue, which makes up the dermis, and __(b)__, which forms the epidermis.
- a) dense irregular connective tissue
- b) stratified squamous epithelium
The tough water-repellent protein found in the epidermal cells is called _______.
The pigments ___(a)___ and ___(b)___ contribute to skin color.
A localized concentration of ______ is referred to as a freckle.
Four protective functions of the skin are:
- 1. Prevents dessication
- 2. Protects against thermal damage
- 3. Prevents bacterial invasion,
- 4. Protects against UV radiation
Translucent cells in thick skin containing keratin fibrils.
Dead cells. (a, b)
- a) Stratum Corneum
- b) Stratum Lucidum
Dermis lay er responsible for fingerprints
- Dermis region
- a) Papillary Layer
- b) Reticular Layer
Major skin area that produces dirivatives (nails and hair)
Epidermal layer exibiting the most rapid cell division
Scalelike dead cells, full of keratin, that constantly slough off
Mitotic ccells filled with intermediate filaments
Has abundant elasic and collagenic fibers
Location of melanocytes and Merkel cells
Area where weblike prekeratin filaments first appear
Region of areolar connective tissue
Major regions of the skin (3)
- Hypodermis (Subcutaneous tissue)
Layers of the dermis (4)
- Stratum corneum
- Stratum Granulosum
- Stratum Spinosum
- Stratum Basale
Apendage of the epidermal layer
Appendages of the dermis (10)
- 1. Dermal papillae
- 2. Hair root
- 3. Sebaceous gland
- 4. Hair follicle
- 5. Arrector pili muscle
- 6. Sweat gland
- 7. Blood vessel
- 8. Hair bulb
- 9. Nerve fiber
- 10. Pacinian corpuscle (deep pressure receptor)
The type of tisue cells found in the hypodermis
______ granules extruded from the keratinocytes prevent water loss by diffusing through the epidermis.
Laminated (or lamellated)
Fibers in the dermis are produced by ______.
Glands that respond to rising androgen levels are the ___(a)___ and ___(b)___ glands.
- a) Sebaceous glands
- b) Apocrine sweat glands
Phagocytic cells that occupy the epidermis are called ______.
A unique touch receptor formed from a stratum basale cell and a nerve fiber is a ______.
What layer is present in thick skin but not in thin skin?
What cell to cell structures hold the cells of the stratum spinosum tightly together?
What substance is manufactured in the skin (but is not a secretion) to play a role elsewhere in the body?
List the sensory receptors found in the dermis of the skin: (5)
- 1. pain
- 2. pressure
- 3. touch
- 4. heat
- 5. cold
a.) A nurse tells a doctor that a patient is cyanotic. Define cyanosis.
b.) What does its presence imply?
- a.) A blue cast to the skin
- b.) Inadequate oxygenation of the blood.
a.) What is a bedsore (decubitus ulcer)?
b.) Why does it occur?
- a.) Localized area of tissue necrosis and death.
- b.)Pressure areas (points of increased pressure over bony areas) restrict the blood supply to the area.
Some injections hurt more than others. On the basis of what you have larned about skin structure, can you determine why this is so?
It depends on the relative number of pain receptors stimulated.
produces an accumulation of oily material that tis known as blackhead
Tiny muscles, attached to hair follicles, that pull the hair upright during fright or cold.
Perspiration glands with a role in temprature control
Sweat gland -eccrine
Sheath formed of both epithelial and connective tissues
Less numerous type of perspiration-producing gland; found mainly in the pubic and axillary regions
Sweat gland -Apocrine
Found everywhere on the body except palm of ands and soles of feet
primarily dead/keratinized cells (2)
Specialized nerve endings that respond to temperature, touch, etc
Its secretion is a lubricant for hair and skin
"sports" a lunula and a cuticle
Discribe two integumentary system mechanisms that help in regulating body temperature:
- 1. When capillary blood flow to the skin is enanced (by nervous sytem controls), heat radiates from the skin surface; restriction of bloodflow conserves body heat.
- 2. Activity of sweatglands, i.e., when perspiration evaporates from the skin surface, heat is lost.
With what substance in the bond paper does the iodine panted on the skin react?
a.) Based on class data, which skin area -the forearme or palm of the hand- has more sweat glands?
- a) Palm
- b) For most people, hands sweat more than the forearm.
Which other body areas would, if teted, prove to have a high density of sweat glands? (2)
What organ system controls the activity of the eccrine sweat glands?
Nervous system (sympathetic division)
Why can fingerprints be used to identify individuals?
Everyone's fingerprints are genetically distinct.
Mane three common fingerprint patterns.