A&P Lab Ch. 7

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amholland
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240417
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A&P Lab Ch. 7
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2013-10-13 19:03:24
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The Integumentary System
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  1. The two basic tissues of which the skin is composed are __(a)__ tissue, which makes up the dermis, and __(b)__, which forms the epidermis.
    • a) dense irregular connective tissue
    • b) stratified squamous epithelium
  2. The tough water-repellent protein found in the epidermal cells is called _______.
    keratin
  3. The pigments ___(a)___ and ___(b)___ contribute to skin color.
    • a) melanin
    • b) carotene
  4. A localized concentration of ______ is referred to as a freckle.
    melanin
  5. Four protective functions of the skin are:
    • 1. Prevents dessication
    • 2. Protects against thermal damage
    • 3. Prevents bacterial invasion,
    • 4. Protects against UV radiation
  6. Translucent cells in thick skin containing keratin fibrils.
    Stratum Lucidum
  7. Dead cells. (a, b)
    • a) Stratum Corneum
    • b) Stratum Lucidum
  8. Dermis lay er responsible for fingerprints
    Papillary layer
  9. Vascular region
    • Dermis region
    • or
    • a) Papillary Layer
    • b) Reticular Layer
  10. Major skin area that produces dirivatives (nails and hair)
    Epidermis
  11. Epidermal layer exibiting the most rapid cell division
    Stratum Basale
  12. Scalelike dead cells, full of keratin, that constantly slough off
    Stratum Corneum
  13. Mitotic ccells filled with intermediate filaments
    Stratum Spinosum
  14. Has abundant elasic and collagenic fibers
    • Dermis
    • or
    • Reticular layer
  15. Location of melanocytes and Merkel cells
    Stratum Basale
  16. Area where weblike prekeratin filaments first appear
    Stratum spinosum
  17. Region of areolar connective tissue
    Papillary Layer
  18. Major regions of the skin (3)
    • Epidermis
    • Dermis
    • Hypodermis (Subcutaneous tissue)
  19. Layers of the dermis (4)
    • Stratum corneum
    • Stratum Granulosum
    • Stratum Spinosum
    • Stratum Basale
  20. Apendage of the epidermal layer
    Hair shaft
  21. Appendages of the dermis (10)
    • 1. Dermal papillae
    • 2. Hair root
    • 3. Sebaceous gland
    • 4. Hair follicle
    • 5. Arrector pili muscle
    • 6. Sweat gland
    • 7. Blood vessel
    • 8. Hair bulb
    • 9. Nerve fiber
    • 10. Pacinian corpuscle (deep pressure receptor)
  22. The type of tisue cells found in the hypodermis
    Adipose cells
  23. ______ granules extruded from the keratinocytes prevent water loss by diffusing through the epidermis.
    Laminated (or lamellated)
  24. Fibers in the dermis are produced by ______.
    Fibroblasts
  25. Glands that respond to rising androgen levels are the ___(a)___ and ___(b)___ glands.
    • a) Sebaceous glands
    • b) Apocrine sweat glands
  26. Phagocytic cells that occupy the epidermis are called ______.
    Langehan's cells
  27. A unique touch receptor formed from a stratum basale cell and a nerve fiber is a ______.
    Merkel disc
  28. What layer is present in thick skin but not in thin skin?
    Stratum Lucidum
  29. What cell to cell structures hold the cells of the stratum spinosum tightly together?
    Desmosomes
  30. What substance is manufactured in the skin (but is not a secretion) to play a role elsewhere in the body?
    Vitamin D
  31. List the sensory receptors found in the dermis of the skin: (5)
    • 1. pain
    • 2. pressure
    • 3. touch
    • 4. heat
    • 5. cold
  32. a.) A nurse tells a doctor that a patient is cyanotic. Define cyanosis.

    b.) What does its presence imply?
    • a.) A blue cast to the skin
    • b.) Inadequate oxygenation of the blood.
  33. a.) What is a bedsore (decubitus ulcer)?
    b.) Why does it occur?
    • a.) Localized area of tissue necrosis and death.
    • b.)Pressure areas (points of increased pressure over bony areas) restrict the blood supply to the area.
  34. Some injections hurt more than others. On the basis of what you have larned about skin structure, can you determine why this is so?
    It depends on the relative number of pain receptors stimulated.
  35. produces an accumulation of oily material that tis known as blackhead
    Sebaceous glands
  36. Tiny muscles, attached to hair follicles, that pull the hair upright during fright or cold.
    Arrector pili
  37. Perspiration glands with a role in temprature control
    Sweat gland -eccrine
  38. Sheath formed of both epithelial and connective tissues
    Hair follicle
  39. Less numerous type of perspiration-producing gland; found mainly in the pubic and axillary regions
    Sweat gland -Apocrine
  40. Found everywhere on the body except palm of ands and soles of feet
    Sebaceous glands
  41. primarily dead/keratinized cells (2)
    • Hair
    • Nail
  42. Specialized nerve endings that respond to temperature, touch, etc
    Cutaneous receptors
  43. Its secretion is a lubricant for hair and skin
    Sebaceous glands
  44. "sports" a lunula and a cuticle
    Nail
  45. Discribe two integumentary system mechanisms that help in regulating body temperature:
    • 1. When capillary blood flow to the skin is enanced (by nervous sytem controls), heat radiates from the skin surface; restriction of bloodflow conserves body heat.
    • 2. Activity of sweatglands, i.e., when perspiration evaporates from the skin surface, heat is lost.
  46. With what substance in the bond paper does the iodine panted on the skin react?
    The starch
  47. a.) Based on class data, which skin area -the forearme or palm of the hand- has more sweat glands?
    b.) Explain.
    • a) Palm
    • b) For most people, hands sweat more than the forearm.
  48. Which other body areas would, if teted, prove to have a high density of sweat glands? (2)
    • Face
    • Axillae
  49. What organ system controls the activity of the eccrine sweat glands?
    Nervous system (sympathetic division)
  50. Why can fingerprints be used to identify individuals?
    Everyone's fingerprints are genetically distinct.
  51. Mane three common fingerprint patterns.
    • loops
    • arches
    • whorls

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