Sm animal exam 2

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Sm animal exam 2
2013-10-15 22:23:54
Sm animal exam

Sm animal exam 2
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  1. Cations
    • sodium
    • potassium
    • magnesium
    • calcium
  2. Anions
    • chloride
    • bicarb
    • phosphates
    • proteins
  3. Plasma is ___ % of body weight.
  4. List some intracellular fluids
    • K
    • Mg
    • protein
    • phosphate
  5. List some extracellular fluids
    • Na
    • Cl
    • HCO
  6. List the three parts to the pre-induction patient care
    • withholding food
    • patient stabilization
    • IV catheterization
  7. Adverse effects of ACE
    • reduced seizure threshold
    • aggression/ excitement
    • hypotension
    • penile prolapse
    • decreased PCV
  8. T/F: Ace has no reversal agent.
  9. T/F: Ace will slowly cross the placenta
  10. How are overdoses with Ace treated?
    • phenylephrine
    • norepinephrine
  11. What class of drug is Ace in?
  12. What are some breed and species considerations when using Ace?
    • Exaggerated effects in aussies: reduce dose 25%
    • Giant breeds, boxers and greyhounds are very sensitive with possible severe bradycardia & hypotension
    • Terriers and cats: more resistant
  13. Diazepam, Zolazepam and Midazolam are controlled substances in what class of drug? What is their indication?
    benzodiazepines; tranquilizer
  14. What effect do benzodiazepines have on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems?
    minimal effect; high margin of safety
  15. List some effects of benzodiazepines.
    • anticonvulsant¬†
    • calming/ anti anxiety in old/ ill patients
    • skeletal muscle relaxation
    • appetite stimulation (cats and ruminants)
  16. What are some adverse effects of benzodiazepines?
    • disorientation and excitement in young healthy dogs
    • dysphoria and aggression in cats
    • muscle fasciculations in horses
    • ataxia and recumbency- any large animal
  17. Diazepam must be given ___ slowly
  18. T/F: diazepam is water soluble and is frequently mixed with ketamine
    FALSE; not water soluble!
  19. What routes can Midazolam be given?
    • IV
    • IM
    • SC
  20. How is Zolazepam available?
    only as a component of Telazol (Zolazepam + Telatimine)
  21. List some alpha2- agonists
    • Xylazine
    • Detomidine
    • Romifidine
    • Dexmedetomidine
  22. What is the small animal concentration of Xylazine?
    20 mg/ mL
  23. What is the large animal concentration of Xylazine?
    100 mg/ mL
  24. What are some effects of alpha2 agonists?
    • sedation
    • analgesia- short acting
    • muscle relaxation
  25. What effect do alpha2 agonists have on the respiratory system?
    depresses respiratory function (dose dependent)
  26. In the early stage of administration, what are the effects of alpha2 agonists in the cardiovascular system? In late stages?
    Early: bradycardia, dose dependent hypertension vasoconstriction, cardiac arrhythmias

    Late: decreased cardiac output, hypotension and further bradycardia.
  27. Adverse effects of alpha2 agonists
    • change in behavior
    • bradycardia, hypotension, decreased output
    • respiratory depressor
    • increased urination
    • bloat: dogs, cattle, horses
    • salivation and regurgitation: cattle
    • premature parturition: cattle
    • sweating: horses
  28. When giving alpha2 agonists, administer anticholinergics ___-____ minutes before.
  29. What is the reversal agent of Xylazine?
    • Tolazine
    • yohimbine
  30. What is the reversal agent of Dexmedetomidine (Dexdomitor)?
    atipamazole (Antisedan)
  31. What is an advantage of using Detomidine rather than Xylazine in horses?
    Two times the duration
  32. What ratio is used to express the dose of an alpha2 antagonist?
    agonist: antagonist
  33. What is the ratio to dose Yohimbine to reverse the effects of Xylazine?
    • dogs and horses: 10:1
    • cats: 2:1
  34. When using Antisedan as a reversal agent of _______, reversal occurs ___-____ mins of IM injection.
    Dexmedetomidine; 5-10
  35. How can opiods be classified?
    • agonists
    • partial agonists
    • agonist- antagonist
    • antagonist
  36. List examples of agonist opiods
    • Morphine
    • Hydromorphone
    • Oxymorphone
    • Fentanyl
    • Meperidine
  37. List an example of a partial agonist opiod
  38. List 2 examples of an agonist- antagonist opiod.
    • Butorphanol¬†
    • Nalbuphine
  39. List examples of antagonist opiods
    • Naloxone
    • Etorphine
    • Carfentenil
  40. Which of the opiods are not considered controlled substances?
    • Nalbuphine
    • Antagonists
  41. How can opiods be administered?
    • IV
    • IM
    • SC
    • oral
    • rectal
    • transdermal
    • subarachnoid
    • epiduiral
  42. Pharmacodynamics of agonist opiods
    bind to and stimulate mu and kappa receptors
  43. Which type of opiods are best for severe pain?
  44. Pharmacodynamics of partial agonists
    • bind to and partially stimulate receptors
  45. Pharmacodynamics of agonist-antagonists
    Bind to mu and kappa receptors but only stimulate kappa receptors
  46. Pharmacodynamics of antagonists
    bind to but don't stimulate receptors
  47. how do opiods effect the CNS of dogs? Cats, horses and ruminants?
    • Dogs: sedation, narcosis
    • Cats, horses, ruminants: CNS stimulation, bizarre behavior or dysphoria
  48. What are some effects of opiods?
    • Bradycardia
    • Miosis
    • Mydriasis
    • Hypothermia in dogs
    • Hypethermia in cats
    • Increased response to noise
    • Sweating in horses
    • Decreased urine production with urine retention
  49. Adverse effects of opiods
    • anxiety
    • disorientation
    • excitement
    • dysphoria
    • bradycardia
    • decreased respiration and tidal volume
    • salivation, diarrhea and vomiting: small animal
    • facial swelling
    • hypotension
    • increased intraocular and intracranial pressure
  50. The "ceiling effect" applies to respiratory function and heart rate and refers to what type of drug?
  51. Neuroleptanalgesia
    profound state of sedation and analgesia induced by simultaneous administration of an opioid and a tranquilizer.
  52. How should a neuroleptananalgesia be administered?
    IM or slowly IV to prevent excitation
  53. What is Naloxone Hydrochloride used for?
    an opioid reversal agent
  54. How is Naloxone Hydrochloride administered?
    IM or slowly IV
  55. What is the name of the opioid reversal agent used mainly in wild animals?
  56. What is the time it takes to reverse and opioid using Naloxone Hydrochloride?
    • IM: 5 mins
    • IV: 2 mins
  57. Uses of opioid antagonists
    • emergencies
    • overdose
    • reverse neuroleptananalgesia
    • revival of neonates if dam was given opioids
  58. Do injectable anesthetics produce analgesia or muscle relaxation?
  59. List some injectable anesthetics
    • propofol
    • barbiturates
    • etomidate
  60. T/F: ultrashort acting barbiturates are used in dogs, cats and horses
  61. How do barbiturates work in the body?
    • bind to plasma proteins (hypoproteinemia means more free drug)
    • drug enters the brain
  62. How are barbiturates administered?
  63. Thiopental and methohexital are both ultra short acting barbiturates and are distributed to muscle and fat. What is the difference between the two?
    Thiopental is slowly released- prolonged recovery, methohexital is released faster so no prolonged recovery
  64. What type of barbiturate is phenobarbital?
    long acting; slow uptake and release from the brain; released by kidney excretion.
  65. What type of barbiturate is pentobarbital?
    short acting; brain levels decrease based on liver metabolism
  66. T/F: you should always intubate when using barbiturates as an injectable anesthetic.
    TRUE; because of muscle relaxation
  67. Effects of barbiturates
    • mild sedation to unconsciousness
    • excitement at low dose
    • cardiac depression; thiopental specifically
    • decreased respiratory rate; brief apnea or shallow breaths
    • sneezing, larynospasm, coughing
    • initial decrease in GI motility, later increase
  68. Bigeminy
    occurrence of two heart beats of the pulse in rapid succession
  69. Pentobarbital is what type of barbiturate?
    short acting
  70. What barbiturate is used to treat status epilepticus and is largely being replaced by propofol?
  71. T/F: Propofol is ultra short acting
  72. Uses of propofol
    • anesthetic induction
    • short term maintenance
    • tx of status epileptus in dogs
  73. T/F: Propofol is highly fat soluble
  74. Onset of action of Propofol
    30-60 secs
  75. duration of action of Propofol
    5-10 mins
  76. recovery time of Propofol
    • Dogs: 20 mins
    • Cats: 30 mins
  77. T/F: Propofol provides analgesia
  78. How does Propofol affect the cardiovascular and respiratory systems?
    depresses both; may cause apnea and hypotension
  79. Propofol is also an antiemetic and _________ intraocular and intracranial pressure
  80. Adverse effects of propofol
    • excitement
    • muscle tremors
    • paddling, twitching, nystagmus (resembles seizures)
    • hypotension
    • apnea
  81. What drug, with repeated doses can cause heinz body formation? What other misc drug can cause this?
    Propofol; Tylenol
  82. What will be produced by giving Propofol IM?
    ataxia and mild sedation
  83. What can result if Propofol is given too slowly?
  84. How is propofol administered?
    • IV bolus every 3-5 mins for 20 mins
    • CRI with syringe pump or IV line
  85. Propoflo can be used in what species?
    dogs and cats
  86. Propoflo 28 cannot be used in what species?
  87. Propoflo must be discarded _____ after of opening.
  88. T/F: Telazol is a controlled substance.
  89. onset of action in ketamine
    • IV: 1-2 mins
    • IM: 10 mins
  90. Duration of action in ketamine
    20-30 mins
  91. What effect does a higher dose of ketamine produce
    longer sedation (not increased anesthetic effect)
  92. T/F: Ketamine should be avoided in animals with kidney or liver disease.
  93. T/F: analgesia is not provided with dissociative anesthetics
  94. T/F: Sensitivity to sensory stimuli is an effect of dissociative anesthetics
  95. How do dissociative anesthetics effect the cardiovascular and respiratory systems?
    • increase HR and cardiac output
    • increase mean blood pressure
    • decreased inotropy
    • cardiac arrythmias
  96. How are dissociative anesthetics administered?
    • IV
    • IM
  97. T/F: Dissociative anesthetics have no effective reversal agent
  98. T/F: increased salivation and respiratory tract secretions are an adverse effect of dissociative anesthetics.
  99. What species is ketamine approved for use?
    Cats, subhuman primates
  100. T/F: ketamine can also be administered orally
  101. recovery time of ketamine
    2-6 hours
  102. How is ketamine eliminated from the animals system?
    • cats: renal
    • dogs: hepatic
  103. Onset of action in ketamine + diazepam
    30-90 secs
  104. Duration of action in ketamine + diazepam
    5-10 mins
  105. recovery in ketamine + diazepam
    30-60 mins
  106. How long is Telazol stable once reconstituted?
    • room temp: 4 days
    • ¬†fridge: 14 days
  107. What are advantages of Telazol compared to Ketamine
    • decreased apneustic respiratory response
    • can be given SC
    • effective in some wildlife