Sm animal exam 2
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Plasma is ___ % of body weight.
List some intracellular fluids
List some extracellular fluids
List the three parts to the pre-induction patient care
- withholding food
- patient stabilization
- IV catheterization
Adverse effects of ACE
- reduced seizure threshold
- aggression/ excitement
- penile prolapse
- decreased PCV
T/F: Ace has no reversal agent.
T/F: Ace will slowly cross the placenta
How are overdoses with Ace treated?
What class of drug is Ace in?
What are some breed and species considerations when using Ace?
- Exaggerated effects in aussies: reduce dose 25%
- Giant breeds, boxers and greyhounds are very sensitive with possible severe bradycardia & hypotension
- Terriers and cats: more resistant
Diazepam, Zolazepam and Midazolam are controlled substances in what class of drug? What is their indication?
What effect do benzodiazepines have on the cardiovascular and respiratory systems?
minimal effect; high margin of safety
List some effects of benzodiazepines.
- calming/ anti anxiety in old/ ill patients
- skeletal muscle relaxation
- appetite stimulation (cats and ruminants)
What are some adverse effects of benzodiazepines?
- disorientation and excitement in young healthy dogs
- dysphoria and aggression in cats
- muscle fasciculations in horses
- ataxia and recumbency- any large animal
Diazepam must be given ___ slowly
T/F: diazepam is water soluble and is frequently mixed with ketamine
FALSE; not water soluble!
What routes can Midazolam be given?
How is Zolazepam available?
only as a component of Telazol (Zolazepam + Telatimine)
List some alpha2- agonists
What is the small animal concentration of Xylazine?
20 mg/ mL
What is the large animal concentration of Xylazine?
100 mg/ mL
What are some effects of alpha2 agonists?
- analgesia- short acting
- muscle relaxation
What effect do alpha2 agonists have on the respiratory system?
depresses respiratory function (dose dependent)
In the early stage of administration, what are the effects of alpha2 agonists in the cardiovascular system? In late stages?
Early: bradycardia, dose dependent hypertension vasoconstriction, cardiac arrhythmias
Late: decreased cardiac output, hypotension and further bradycardia.
Adverse effects of alpha2 agonists
- change in behavior
- bradycardia, hypotension, decreased output
- respiratory depressor
- increased urination
- bloat: dogs, cattle, horses
- salivation and regurgitation: cattle
- premature parturition: cattle
- sweating: horses
When giving alpha2 agonists, administer anticholinergics ___-____ minutes before.
What is the reversal agent of Xylazine?
What is the reversal agent of Dexmedetomidine (Dexdomitor)?
What is an advantage of using Detomidine rather than Xylazine in horses?
Two times the duration
What ratio is used to express the dose of an alpha2 antagonist?
What is the ratio to dose Yohimbine to reverse the effects of Xylazine?
- dogs and horses: 10:1
- cats: 2:1
When using Antisedan as a reversal agent of _______, reversal occurs ___-____ mins of IM injection.
How can opiods be classified?
- partial agonists
- agonist- antagonist
List examples of agonist opiods
List an example of a partial agonist opiod
List 2 examples of an agonist- antagonist opiod.
List examples of antagonist opiods
Which of the opiods are not considered controlled substances?
How can opiods be administered?
Pharmacodynamics of agonist opiods
bind to and stimulate mu and kappa receptors
Which type of opiods are best for severe pain?
Pharmacodynamics of partial agonists
- bind to and partially stimulate receptors
Pharmacodynamics of agonist-antagonists
Bind to mu and kappa receptors but only stimulate kappa receptors
Pharmacodynamics of antagonists
bind to but don't stimulate receptors
how do opiods effect the CNS of dogs? Cats, horses and ruminants?
- Dogs: sedation, narcosis
- Cats, horses, ruminants: CNS stimulation, bizarre behavior or dysphoria
What are some effects of opiods?
- Hypothermia in dogs
- Hypethermia in cats
- Increased response to noise
- Sweating in horses
- Decreased urine production with urine retention
Adverse effects of opiods
- decreased respiration and tidal volume
- salivation, diarrhea and vomiting: small animal
- facial swelling
- increased intraocular and intracranial pressure
The "ceiling effect" applies to respiratory function and heart rate and refers to what type of drug?
profound state of sedation and analgesia induced by simultaneous administration of an opioid and a tranquilizer.
How should a neuroleptananalgesia be administered?
IM or slowly IV to prevent excitation
What is Naloxone Hydrochloride used for?
an opioid reversal agent
How is Naloxone Hydrochloride administered?
IM or slowly IV
What is the name of the opioid reversal agent used mainly in wild animals?
What is the time it takes to reverse and opioid using Naloxone Hydrochloride?
Uses of opioid antagonists
- reverse neuroleptananalgesia
- revival of neonates if dam was given opioids
Do injectable anesthetics produce analgesia or muscle relaxation?
List some injectable anesthetics
T/F: ultrashort acting barbiturates are used in dogs, cats and horses
How do barbiturates work in the body?
- bind to plasma proteins (hypoproteinemia means more free drug)
- drug enters the brain
How are barbiturates administered?
Thiopental and methohexital are both ultra short acting barbiturates and are distributed to muscle and fat. What is the difference between the two?
Thiopental is slowly released- prolonged recovery, methohexital is released faster so no prolonged recovery
What type of barbiturate is phenobarbital?
long acting; slow uptake and release from the brain; released by kidney excretion.
What type of barbiturate is pentobarbital?
short acting; brain levels decrease based on liver metabolism
T/F: you should always intubate when using barbiturates as an injectable anesthetic.
TRUE; because of muscle relaxation
Effects of barbiturates
- mild sedation to unconsciousness
- excitement at low dose
- cardiac depression; thiopental specifically
- decreased respiratory rate; brief apnea or shallow breaths
- sneezing, larynospasm, coughing
- initial decrease in GI motility, later increase
occurrence of two heart beats of the pulse in rapid succession
Pentobarbital is what type of barbiturate?
What barbiturate is used to treat status epilepticus and is largely being replaced by propofol?
T/F: Propofol is ultra short acting
Uses of propofol
- anesthetic induction
- short term maintenance
- tx of status epileptus in dogs
T/F: Propofol is highly fat soluble
Onset of action of Propofol
duration of action of Propofol
recovery time of Propofol
- Dogs: 20 mins
- Cats: 30 mins
T/F: Propofol provides analgesia
How does Propofol affect the cardiovascular and respiratory systems?
depresses both; may cause apnea and hypotension
Propofol is also an antiemetic and _________ intraocular and intracranial pressure
Adverse effects of propofol
- muscle tremors
- paddling, twitching, nystagmus (resembles seizures)
What drug, with repeated doses can cause heinz body formation? What other misc drug can cause this?
What will be produced by giving Propofol IM?
ataxia and mild sedation
What can result if Propofol is given too slowly?
How is propofol administered?
- IV bolus every 3-5 mins for 20 mins
- CRI with syringe pump or IV line
Propoflo can be used in what species?
dogs and cats
Propoflo 28 cannot be used in what species?
Propoflo must be discarded _____ after of opening.
T/F: Telazol is a controlled substance.
onset of action in ketamine
Duration of action in ketamine
What effect does a higher dose of ketamine produce
longer sedation (not increased anesthetic effect)
T/F: Ketamine should be avoided in animals with kidney or liver disease.
T/F: analgesia is not provided with dissociative anesthetics
T/F: Sensitivity to sensory stimuli is an effect of dissociative anesthetics
How do dissociative anesthetics effect the cardiovascular and respiratory systems?
- increase HR and cardiac output
- increase mean blood pressure
- decreased inotropy
- cardiac arrythmias
How are dissociative anesthetics administered?
T/F: Dissociative anesthetics have no effective reversal agent
T/F: increased salivation and respiratory tract secretions are an adverse effect of dissociative anesthetics.
What species is ketamine approved for use?
Cats, subhuman primates
T/F: ketamine can also be administered orally
recovery time of ketamine
How is ketamine eliminated from the animals system?
- cats: renal
- dogs: hepatic
Onset of action in ketamine + diazepam
Duration of action in ketamine + diazepam
recovery in ketamine + diazepam
How long is Telazol stable once reconstituted?
- room temp: 4 days
- fridge: 14 days
What are advantages of Telazol compared to Ketamine
- decreased apneustic respiratory response
- can be given SC
- effective in some wildlife
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