Research Methods

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1. Hindsight Bias
Tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you knew all along.
2. Overconfidence
We tend to think more than we do
3. Barnum Effect
Tendency for people to accept very general or vague characterizations of themselves and take them to be accurate.
4. Applied Research
• Has clear, practical applications. You can use it.
•    ex. research on drug addiction
5. Basic Research
Explores questions that you may be curious about, but not intended to be immediately used.
6. Hypothesis
Expresses a relationship between two variables.
7. Variable
anything that can vary among participants in a study.
8. Independent Variable
Whatever is being manipulated in the experiment.
9. Dependent Variable
Whatever is being measured in the experiment.
10. Extraneous Variables
Factors that effect the dependent variable, that are not the independent.
11. Operational Definitions
• Explains what you mean in your hypothesis.
• Explains everything in your experiment.
12. Sampling
• Identify the population you want to study.
• (Random Sample)
13. Stratified Sample
method of sampling from a population
14. Experimental Method
• Looking to prove casual relationships
•    Cause = Effect
15. Random Assignment
Once you have a random sample, randomly assigning them into two groups helps control for confounding variables.
16. Group Matching
ensure that experimental and control group are equivalent on some criterions.
17. Hawthorne Effect
• Some people may work harder when they know that they are participating in an experiment.
• Some may change their behavior.
18. Experimental Bias
Another confounding variable - not a conscious act
19. Double-blind Procedure
neither the participants nor the experimenters know who is receiving a particular treatment.
20. Placebo Effect
• Sometimes the act of taking a pill produces an effect if the person believes the pill is active

Placebo - like a sugar pill
21. Correlational Method
• Correlation expresses a relationship between two variables.
• Does not show causation
22. Correlation Coefficient
• A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors relate to one another.
• (A number that measures the strength of a relationship)
• r.
•    ex. as more... more..
• Ranges from -1 to +1
• The relationship gets weaker the closer you get to zero.
• The variables go in the SAME direction.
•    ex. Studying + Grades
23. Negative Correlation
• The variables go in opposite directions
•     ex. Drugs + grades
24. Experimental Research
Explains cause and effect relationships
25. Survey Method
• Most common type of study in psychology.
• Measures correlation
26. Naturalistic Observation
Watch subjects in their natural environment.
27. Statistics
Recording results from our studies
28. Descriptive Statistics
Just describes set(s) of data.
29. Frequency Distribution
• Summary of how often different sources occur within a sample of scores.
• Commonly used to categorize information.
30. Central Tendency
Mean, median, mode
31. Normal Distribution
Mean, median, mode are all the same.
32. Distributions
• Outliers skew distributions.
•
•   If group has one high score, the curve has a positive skew (contains more low scores)
33. Standard Direction
• the variance of scores around the mean.
•   the higher the variance or standard direction, the more spread out the distribution is
34. Z Scores
A unit that measures the distance of one score from the mean.
35. Inferential Statistics
Purpose is to discover whether the finding can be applied to the larger population from which the sample was collected.
36. APA Ethical Guidelines
IRR Internal Review Board

Both for humans and animals.
37. Human Research
• No coercion - must be voluntary
• Informed consent
• Anonymity
• No significant risk
• Must be debrief
 Author: kashiwagiixd ID: 240445 Card Set: Research Methods Updated: 2013-10-14 01:51:25 Tags: Psychology Folders: Description: Research Methods Show Answers: