Research Methods
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Hindsight Bias
Tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you knew all along.

Overconfidence
We tend to think more than we do

Barnum Effect
Tendency for people to accept very general or vague characterizations of themselves and take them to be accurate.

Applied Research
 Has clear, practical applications. You can use it.
 ex. research on drug addiction

Basic Research
Explores questions that you may be curious about, but not intended to be immediately used.

Hypothesis
Expresses a relationship between two variables.

Variable
anything that can vary among participants in a study.

Independent Variable
Whatever is being manipulated in the experiment.

Dependent Variable
Whatever is being measured in the experiment.

Extraneous Variables
Factors that effect the dependent variable, that are not the independent.

Operational Definitions
 Explains what you mean in your hypothesis.
 Explains everything in your experiment.

Sampling
 Identify the population you want to study.
 (Random Sample)

Stratified Sample
method of sampling from a population

Experimental Method
 Looking to prove casual relationships
 Cause = Effect

Random Assignment
Once you have a random sample, randomly assigning them into two groups helps control for confounding variables.

Group Matching
ensure that experimental and control group are equivalent on some criterions.

Hawthorne Effect
 Some people may work harder when they know that they are participating in an experiment.
 Some may change their behavior.

Experimental Bias
Another confounding variable  not a conscious act

Doubleblind Procedure
neither the participants nor the experimenters know who is receiving a particular treatment.

Placebo Effect
 Sometimes the act of taking a pill produces an effect if the person believes the pill is active
Placebo  like a sugar pill

Correlational Method
 Correlation expresses a relationship between two variables.
 Does not show causation

Correlation Coefficient
 A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors relate to one another.
 (A number that measures the strength of a relationship)
 r.
 ex. as more... more..
 Ranges from 1 to +1
 The relationship gets weaker the closer you get to zero.

 The variables go in the SAME direction.
 ex. Studying + Grades

Negative Correlation
 The variables go in opposite directions
 ex. Drugs + grades

Experimental Research
Explains cause and effect relationships

Survey Method
 Most common type of study in psychology.
 Measures correlation

Naturalistic Observation
Watch subjects in their natural environment.

Statistics
Recording results from our studies

Descriptive Statistics
Just describes set(s) of data.

Frequency Distribution
 Summary of how often different sources occur within a sample of scores.
 Commonly used to categorize information.

Central Tendency
Mean, median, mode

Normal Distribution
Mean, median, mode are all the same.

Distributions
 Outliers skew distributions.

 If group has one high score, the curve has a positive skew (contains more low scores)

Standard Direction
 the variance of scores around the mean.
 the higher the variance or standard direction, the more spread out the distribution is

Z Scores
A unit that measures the distance of one score from the mean.

Inferential Statistics
Purpose is to discover whether the finding can be applied to the larger population from which the sample was collected.

APA Ethical Guidelines
IRR Internal Review Board
Both for humans and animals.

Human Research
 No coercion  must be voluntary
 Informed consent
 Anonymity
 No significant risk
 Must be debrief