Research Methods

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Research Methods
2013-10-13 21:51:25

Research Methods
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  1. Hindsight Bias
    Tendency to believe, after learning the outcome, that you knew all along.
  2. Overconfidence
    We tend to think more than we do
  3. Barnum Effect
    Tendency for people to accept very general or vague characterizations of themselves and take them to be accurate.
  4. Applied Research
    • Has clear, practical applications. You can use it.
    •    ex. research on drug addiction
  5. Basic Research
    Explores questions that you may be curious about, but not intended to be immediately used.
  6. Hypothesis
    Expresses a relationship between two variables.
  7. Variable
    anything that can vary among participants in a study.
  8. Independent Variable
    Whatever is being manipulated in the experiment.
  9. Dependent Variable
    Whatever is being measured in the experiment.
  10. Extraneous Variables
    Factors that effect the dependent variable, that are not the independent.
  11. Operational Definitions
    • Explains what you mean in your hypothesis.
    • Explains everything in your experiment.
  12. Sampling
    • Identify the population you want to study.
    • (Random Sample)
  13. Stratified Sample
    method of sampling from a population
  14. Experimental Method
    • Looking to prove casual relationships
    •    Cause = Effect
  15. Random Assignment
    Once you have a random sample, randomly assigning them into two groups helps control for confounding variables.
  16. Group Matching
    ensure that experimental and control group are equivalent on some criterions.
  17. Hawthorne Effect
    • Some people may work harder when they know that they are participating in an experiment.
    • Some may change their behavior.
  18. Experimental Bias
    Another confounding variable - not a conscious act
  19. Double-blind Procedure
    neither the participants nor the experimenters know who is receiving a particular treatment.
  20. Placebo Effect
    • Sometimes the act of taking a pill produces an effect if the person believes the pill is active

    Placebo - like a sugar pill
  21. Correlational Method
    • Correlation expresses a relationship between two variables.
    • Does not show causation
  22. Correlation Coefficient
    • A statistical measure of the extent to which two factors relate to one another.
    • (A number that measures the strength of a relationship)
    • r.
    •    ex. as more... more..
    • Ranges from -1 to +1
    • The relationship gets weaker the closer you get to zero.
    • The variables go in the SAME direction.
    •    ex. Studying + Grades
  23. Negative Correlation
    • The variables go in opposite directions
    •     ex. Drugs + grades
  24. Experimental Research
    Explains cause and effect relationships
  25. Survey Method
    • Most common type of study in psychology.
    • Measures correlation
  26. Naturalistic Observation
    Watch subjects in their natural environment.
  27. Statistics
    Recording results from our studies
  28. Descriptive Statistics
    Just describes set(s) of data.
  29. Frequency Distribution
    • Summary of how often different sources occur within a sample of scores.
    • Commonly used to categorize information.
  30. Central Tendency
    Mean, median, mode
  31. Normal Distribution
    Mean, median, mode are all the same.
  32. Distributions
    • Outliers skew distributions. 
    •   If group has one high score, the curve has a positive skew (contains more low scores)
  33. Standard Direction
    • the variance of scores around the mean.
    •   the higher the variance or standard direction, the more spread out the distribution is
  34. Z Scores
    A unit that measures the distance of one score from the mean.
  35. Inferential Statistics
    Purpose is to discover whether the finding can be applied to the larger population from which the sample was collected.
  36. APA Ethical Guidelines
    IRR Internal Review Board

    Both for humans and animals.
  37. Human Research
    • No coercion - must be voluntary
    • Informed consent
    • Anonymity
    • No significant risk
    • Must be debrief