Med term module 5

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babaghannouj
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240449
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Med term module 5
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2013-10-13 22:08:55
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medical terms terminology
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med terms module 5
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  1. absorption
    passage of materials through the walls of the small intestine into the bloodstream
  2. amino acids
    building blocks of proteins released when proteins are digested
  3. amylase
    enzyme secreted by salivary glands and pancreas for digestion of carbohydrate
  4. anus
    terminal opening of the digestive tract to the outside of the body
  5. appendix
    blind pouch hanging from the cecum
  6. bile
    digestive juice made in the liver and stored in the gallbladder. it emulsifies fat.  Composed of bile pigments, cholesterol, and bile salts
  7. bilirubin
    pigment released by the liver in bile
  8. bowel
    intestine
  9. canine teeth
    pointed, dog-like teeth next to the incisors.  also called cuspids
  10. cecum
    first part of the large intestine
  11. colon
    portion of the large intestine consisting of the ascending, transverse, descending, and sigmoid segments
  12. common bile duct
    carries bile from the liver and gallbladder to the duodenum.  also called the choledochus
  13. defecation
    elimination of feces form the digestive tract through the anus
  14. deglutition
    swallowing
  15. dentin
    primary material found in teeth, covered by enamel in the crown and cementum in the root
  16. digestion
    breakdown of complex foods to simpler forms
  17. duodenum
    • first part of the small intestine
    • duo = 2
    • den = 10
    • duodenum is 12 inches long
  18. elimination
    act of removal of materials from the body
  19. emulsification
    physical process of breaking up large fat globules into smaller globules.  this increases the surface area that enzymes can act upon
  20. enamel
    hard, outermost layer of a tooth
  21. enzyme
    • chemical that speeds up a reaction
    • names end in -ase
  22. esophagus
    • tube connecting the throat to the stomach
    • eso = inward
    • phag/o = swallow
  23. fatty acids
    substances produced when fats are digested
  24. feces
    • solid wastes
    • stool
  25. gallbladder
    small sac under the liver; stores bile
  26. glucose
    simple sugar
  27. glycogen
    starch; glucose is stored int the form of glycogen in liver cells
  28. hydrochloric acid
    substance produced by the stomach; necessary for digestion
  29. ileum
    third part of the small intestine
  30. incisor
    any one of four front teeth in the dental arch
  31. insulin
    hormone produced by the endocrine cells of the pancreas.  transports sugar from the blood into cells and stimulates glycogen formation by the liver
  32. jejunum
    second part of the small intestine
  33. lipase
    pancreatic enzyme necessary for digestion of fats
  34. liver
    • large organ located in the RUQ of the abdomen.
    • secretes bile; stores sugar, iron and vitamins; produces blood proteins; destroys worn-out red blood cells; filters out toxins
  35. lower esophageal sphincter (LES)
    • ring of muscle between the esophagus and the stomach.  
    • also called cardiac sphincter
  36. mastication
    chewing
  37. molar teeth
    • sixth, seventh, and eighth teeth from the middle on either side of the dental arch
    • premolar teeth are the fourth and fifth
  38. palate
    roof of the mouth
  39. pancreas
    organ under the stomach; produces insulin and enzymes
  40. papillae
    small elevations on the tongue
  41. parotid gland
    • salivary gland within the cheek, just anterior to the ear
    • par = near
    • ot = ear
  42. peristalsis
    rhythmic contractions of the tubular organs.
  43. pharynx
    throat, common passageway for food from the mouth and for air from the nose
  44. portal vein
    large vein bringing blood to the liver from the intestines
  45. protease
    enzyme that digests protein
  46. pulp
    soft tissue within a tooth, containing nerves and blood vessels
  47. pyloric sphincter
    ring of muscle at the end of the stomach, near the duodenum
  48. pylorus
    distal region of the stomach, opening to the duodenum
  49. rectum
    last section of the large intestine, connecting the end of the colon and the anus
  50. rugae
    ridges on the hard palate and the wall of the stomach
  51. saliva
    digestive juice produced by salivary glands. saliva contains the enzyme amylase
  52. salivary glands
    parotid, sublingual, and submandibular
  53. sigmoid colon
    fourth and last, s-shaped segment of the colon, just before the rectum
  54. sphincter
    circular ring of muscle that constricts a passage or closes a natural opening
  55. stomach
    • muscular organ that receives food from the esophagus.
    • parts are the fundus, body and antrum
  56. an
    • anus
    • r
  57. append
    • appendix
    • r
  58. appendic
    • appendix
    • r
  59. bucc
    • cheek
    • r
  60. cec
    • cecum
    • r
  61. celi
    • belly, abdomen
    • r
  62. cheil
    • lip
    • r
  63. cholecyst
    • gallbladder
    • r
  64. choledoch
    • common bile duct
    • r
  65. col
    • colon
    • r
  66. colon
    • colon
    • r
  67. dent
    • tooth
    • r
    • combining vowel - i
  68. duoden
    • duodenum
    • r
  69. enter
    • intestine
    • r
  70. esophag
    • esophagus
    • r
  71. faci
    • face
    • r
  72. gastr
    • stomach
    • r
  73. gingiv
    • gums
    • r
  74. gloss
    • tongue
    • r
  75. hepat
    • liver
    • r
  76. ile
    • ileum
    • r
  77. jejun
    • jejunum
    • r
  78. labi
    • lip
    • r
  79. lapar
    • abdomen
    • r
  80. lingu
    • tongue
    • r
  81. mandibul
    • lower jaw; mandible
    • r
  82. odont
    • tooth
    • r
  83. or
    • mouth
    • r
  84. palat
    • palate
    • r
  85. pancreat
    • pancreas
    • r
  86. peritone
    • peritoneum
    • r
  87. pharyng
    • throat; pharynx
    • r
  88. proct
    • rectum and anus
    • r
  89. pylor
    • pyloric sphincter
    • r
  90. rect
    • rectum
    • r
  91. sialaden
    • salivary gland
    • r
  92. sigmoid
    • sigmoid colon
    • r
  93. stomat
    • mouth
    • r
  94. uvul
    • uvula
    • r
  95. amyl
    • starch; carbohydrate
    • r
  96. bil
    • bile; gall
    • r
  97. bilirubin
    • bilirubin (bile pigment)
    • r
  98. chol
    • bile; gall
    • r
  99. chlorhydr
    • hydrochloric acid
    • r
  100. gluc
    • sugar; glucose
    • r
  101. glyc
    • sugar
    • r
  102. glycogen
    • glycogen
    • r
  103. lip
    • fat
    • r
  104. lith
    • stone
    • r
  105. prote
    • protein
    • r
  106. py
    • pus
    • r
  107. sial
    • saliva, salivary
    • r
  108. steat
    • fat
    • r
  109. ase
    • enzyme
    • s
  110. chezia
    • defecation, elimination of wastes
    • s
  111. iasis
    • abnormal condition
    • s
  112. prandial
    • meal
    • s
  113. anorexia
    lack of appetite
  114. ascites
    abnormal accumulation of fluid in the abdomen
  115. borborygmus
    gurgling produced by gas and/or fluid in the GI tract
  116. constipation
    difficulty in passing stool
  117. eructation
    burp
  118. icterus
    jaundice
  119. melena
    feces containing digested blood
  120. steatorrhea
    fat in the feces, frothy, foul-smelling fecal matter
  121. aphthous stomatitis
    inflammation of the mouth with small painful ulcers
  122. dental caries
    cavity; tooth decay
  123. oral leukoplakia
    white plaques or patches on the mucosa of the mouth
  124. periodontal disease
    inflammation and degeneration of gums, teeth, and surrounding bone
  125. achalasia
    failure of the lower esophageal sphincter to relax
  126. esophageal varices
    swollen, varicose veins at the lower end of the esophagus
  127. gastroesophageal reflux disease
    • GERD
    • solids and fluids return to the mouth from the stomach
  128. peptic ulcer
    open sore in the lining of the stomach or duodenum
  129. anal fistula
    • abnormal, tube-like passageway near the anus
    • usually results from a fissure or from an abscess
  130. colonic polyps
    polyps (benign growths) protrude from the mucous membrane of the colon
  131. pedunculated polyp
    polyp attached to the membrane by a stalk
  132. sessile polyp
    polyp sitting directly on the mucus membrane
  133. Crohn disease
    chronic inflammation of the intestinal tract
  134. diverticulosis
    abnormal outpouchings (diverticula) in the intestinal wall of the colon
  135. diverticulitis
    when fecal matter becomes trapped in diverticula, inflammation can occur
  136. dysentery
    painful, inflamed intestines commonly caused by bacterial infection
  137. hemorrhoids
    swollen, twisted, varicose veins in the rectal region
  138. ileus
    loss of perstalsis with resulting obstruction of the intestines
  139. intussusception
    telescoping of intestines
  140. irritable bowel syndrome
    • IBS
    • group of GI symptoms (abdominal pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation), but without abnormalities in the intestines
  141. volvulus
    twisting of the intestine on itself
  142. cholelithiasis
    gallstones in the gallbladder
  143. biliary colic
    pain from blocked bile ducts

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