A&P Midterm (Part 3)
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What is the definition of Anatomy?
What is the definition of Physiology?
- Anatomy=form and structure of the body
- Physiology=functions of the body
What is Regional anatomy?
What is systemic anatomy?
- Regional anatomy= study individual regions of the body (ex: neck ..overlaps)
- Systemic anatomy= studies systems (nervous system)
What are the 4 levels of organization in your body?
- basic units of life..makes up everything
- 2. Tissues- cells come together to make tissues.
- 3.Organs- tissues come together to make organs. Organs preform a certain function.
- 4. Systems- organs make a system. They preform a common set of activities. ex:(digestive system....absorbs nutrients)
Health=normal anatomy and physiology
homeostasis= maintenance of natural equilibrium in the body
What makes up electrolytes?
sodium, calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus, sulfur, and chlorine.
What are acids?
What are bases?
Acids- release H ions when added to water
Bases- release hydroxyl ions when added to water
What is a buffer?
It keeps the pH in a neutral range
monosacharride(sugar)= simplest form of a carb
Disaccharide= 2 monosacharrides join together (glucose+fructose=sucrose[table sugar])
What is transcription?
What is translation?
- Transcription- the process of making mRNA in the nucleus
- Translation- making protein from mRNA templates.
What is electron microscopy?
using electrons rather than light to view something up close
What is protein synthesis?
- -In the nucleus, mRNA is made.(transcription)
- -mRNA is exported into the cytoplasm.
- -ribosomes in the cytoplasm attach onto mRNA, and act like landing pads for tRNA.
- -Translation occurs and through polypeptide chains, proteins are made.
What is histology?
histology= microanatomy!! (study of microscopic structures of tissues and organs that cannot be seen w/the eye)
What are the 6 functions of epithelia?
- 1. protects, covers, & lines
- 2. filters biochemical substances
- 3. absorbs nutrients
- 4. provides sensory input
- 5. manufactures secretions
- 6. manufactures excretions
What are the basic steps of healing?
- 1. Inflammation- the bodys attempt to isolate the area and limit damage
- 2. Granulation tissue- made by fibroblasts. "healing" goes on.
- 3. Regeneration- granulation tissue goes away, scar tissue is made.
What are pads?
What is the planum nasale?
pads- fat& connective tissue, which is surrounded by all 5 layers of epidermis(epithelial). rough and protects
planum nasale- top of the nose in cats, dogs, pig, and sheep.
What are cutaneous pouches?
infoldings of skin found in sheep (front of eyes, groin, and digits above hooves)
What are the 2 cycles of hair?
- 1. anagen phase= hair growing cycle
- 2. telogen phase- hair stops growing. met terminal length.
- 3. catagen phase= inbetween anagen and telogen phase
What is the arrector pilli?
It is a muscle attached to the hair follicle, when contracted, hairs stick up.
What are sebaceous glands?
What are sweat glands?
What are tail glands?
What are anal glands?
- sebaceous glands- store an oily lipid substance
- sweat glands- release sweat to help cool body, rid of toxins (eccrine & apocrine)
- tail glands- assist in recognition of animals.
- anal glands- a reservoir for secretions from apocrine and sebaceous glands.(foul smell.)
What is laminitis?
a serious condition in horses where the laminar corium becomes inflamed.
what are horns?
- horns- epidermal in origin and similar to hair.(horny keratin)
What are ionic bonds?
electrons transfer from 1 atom to another
What are neutral fats?
(triglycerides) stored for later.
What is ground substance?
- -amorphous and homogeneous. can be a liquid, gel, or solid.
- comprised of glycosaminoglycans (GAG's)
What is facilitated diffusion?
- a passive membrane process.
- *proteins help bring stuff from higher to lower concentrations.
what is an enzyme?
conducts a chemical reaction
Trace elements are often...
1. What are fixed cells?
2. What are wandering cells?
1. fibroblasts, adipocytes, and reticular cells.
2. mast cells, leukocytes, and macrophages.
What is mixed exocrine?
serous and mucous membrane components combined.
What are neurons? and what are their 3 parts?
longest cells in the body.
- 1. perikaryon- cell body
- 2. dendrites- short cytoplasmic extensions
- 3. axon- long single extension
What is a mutation?
What is histopathology?
the microscopic study of diseases in tissues
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