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The Nervous System
chemicals held in terminal buttons that travel through synaptic gaps
- slightly negative charge
- reach the threshold when enough neurotransmitters reach dendrites
Transfer of ions across axon's membrane causes electrical change.
- Deals with motor movements and memory.
- lack of ACH had been linked to Alzheimer
- Deals with motor movement and alertness.
- Too much has been linked to schizophrenia.
- Involved in mood control.
- Mood depression
- Pain control
- many drugs deal with endorphins
make neuron fire
stop neural firing
transfers messages in between
Central Nervous System
The brain and the spinal chord
Peripheral Nervous System
- All the nerves that are not encased in bone.
- Everything but the brain and the spinal chord.
Somatic Nervous System
- Controls voluntary muscle movement.
- Uses motor movement
Autonomic Nervous System
- Controls the automatic functions of the body.
- ex. breathing
Sympathetic Nervous System
- Fight or flight response
- Automatically accelerates heart rate, breathing, dilates pupils, slows down digestion.
Parasympathetic Nervous System
Automatically slows the body down after a stressful event.
Normally, sensory (afferent) neurons take info up through spine to the brain.
The Neural Impulse
- Charged molecules
- Resting potential
- Neuron is not transmitting info.
- The condition of a neuron when the inside is negatively charged relative to the outside.
- When the electrical charge of a cell moves away.
- Inside of a neuron is positively charged relative to the outside, sets off a chain reaction.
- When the electrical charge of a cell moves towards zero.
- Sudden, massive change in charge in the neuron.
- Occurs when depolarization reaches the threshold of excitation.
- Ions flow across cell membrane.
- A temporary shift in the electric charge in a tiny area of a neuron; transmitted along the cell membrane and may fade away if it doesn't reach it threshold of excitement.
- Many sub threshold depolarization are added together to produce an action potential
A neuron either fires or it does not.
Absolute Refractory Period
Period immediately after an action potential when another action potential cannot occur.
Relative Refractory Period
Period following absolute refractory period when neuron will only respond to a stronger than normal impulse
- Synaptic space.
- Tiny gap between neurons
- Terminal button.
- Enlarged area at the end of an axon.
Transmission between neurons
- Synaptic vesicles
- Sacs in terminal button that release chemicals into synaptic space.
Chemicals released by synaptic vesicles.
Location on receptor neuron for specific neurotransmitter
- Most psychoactive drugs (and toxins) work by blocking or enhancing synaptic transmission.
- ex. botulism, botox
- Can stun or kill prey quickly.
- Blocks ACH receptors causing paralysis
- Block dopamine receptors
- Reduces schizophrenic hallucinations
Increases the release of excitatory neurotransmitters by blocking the inhibitory neurotransmitter adenosine.
- prevents reabsorption of dopamine.
- Leads to heightened arousal of entire nervous system.
The brain can be changed both structurally and chemically by experience.
- Complex cable of nerves that connects brain to rest of body.
- Carries motor impulses from the brain to internal organs and muscles.
- Carries sensory info from extremities and internal organs
- Made up of neurons and glial cells.
- Glial cells support neural cells.
- Cells that insulate and support neurons
- Create myelin sheath.
- Remove waste products.
- Provide nourishment
- Prevent harmful substances from entering the brain.
- Ability for our brains to from new connection after the neurons are damaged.
- The younger you are, the more plastic your brain is.
- Iron rod through brain's left frontal lobe.
- Changed personality and behavior.
- Cutting into brain and looking for change.
- Brain tumors
- Test that measures and records the electrical activity of your brain.
- Special sensors (electrodes) are attached to your head and hooked by wires to a computer.
Computerized Axial Tomography (CAT)
- Uses combination of X-rays and computer technology to produce horizontal, or axial, images (often called slices) of the body.
- CT scans are more detailed
Poistron Emission Tomography
Imaging test that uses a radioactive substance (called a tracer) to look for diseases or injury in the brain.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)
A test that uses a magnetic field and pulses of radio wave energy to make pictures of organs and structures inside the body.
Functional neuroimaging procedure using MRI technology that measure brain activity by detecting associated changes in blood flow.
Structural MRI vs. Functional MRI
reveals brain anatomy vs. reveals brain function
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