cardiology

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
240465
Filename:
cardiology
Updated:
2013-10-14 00:14:58
Tags:
Medicine
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Description:
Cardiology, medicine shelf
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  1. Amiodarone
    • class III antiarrhythmic agent
    • Used to treat hypertension, atrial fibrillation
    • Caution: amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism
    • AEs: lung fibrosis, liver toxicity
  2. amiodarone-induced hypothyroidism
    • Must measure TSH
    • symptoms: difficulty concentrating, fatigue, dry skin, weight change
  3. Hydralazine
    side effects
    • Salt retention
    • reflex tachycardia
    • lupus-like syndrome
  4. Metoprolol
    side effects
    • impotence
    • bradycardia
    • AV node blockade
  5. Verapamil
    side effects
    • constipation
    • dizziness
    • flushing
  6. Enalapril
    side effects
    • hyperkalemia
    • cough
    • decreased GFR
    • rash
    • angioedema
  7. Digoxin
    side effects
    • nausea/vomiting
    • diarrhea
    • blurry yellow vision
    • arrhythmias
  8. STEMI (inferior)
    management
    • reperfusion (thrombolysis or percutaneous angioplasty)
    • antiplatelet therapy
    • morphine
    • heparin
    • nitrates - not indicated in aortic stenosis, recent phosphodiesterase inhibitor use, or right ventricular infarction
    • beta-blockers
  9. RIght ventricular infarct
    • presentation: clear lung fields, jugular venous distention, hypotension
    • RV stroke volume decreases, cardiac output is impaired.
    • Tx: IV fluid resuscitation to increase RV stroke volume, enhance LV filling
  10. CHADS2 score
    anticoagulation in atrial fibrillation
    • C: congestive heart failure (1 point)
    • H: hypertension (1 point)
    • A: age >75 (1 point)
    • D: diabetes mellitus (1 point)
    • S2: prior stroke or TIA (2 points)
    • Score: 0 - low stroke risk (no anticoagulation or aspirin)
    • Score: 1 - intermediate (anticoagulation or aspirin)
    • Score: 2-6 - high (anticoagulation)
  11. anticoagulants
    • Warfarin
    • dabigatran
    • rivaroxaban
    • apixaban
  12. S3
    • inflow from the left atrium strikes blood that is already in the left ventricle
    • normal in younger individuals, athletes
    • sign of left ventricular failure
    • Tx: iv diuretics (in symptomatic patient)
    • symptoms: shortness of breath, hypertension, low saturations
  13. DASH diet
    • high in fruits and vegetables, low in saturated and total fats
    • reduces systolic blood pressures by¬†8-14mmHg
    • **Most effective lifestyle intervention for reducing blood pressure in non-obese patients
    • Obese patients: weight loss
  14. Also drops systolic blood pressure...
    lifestyle
    • weight loss: reduce BMI <25
    • Dietary sodium: <3g/day
    • Exercise: 30min/day for 5 or 6 days/week
    • Alcohol intake: <2 for men, 1 for women
  15. recent URI followed by sudden heart failure
    dilated cardiomyopathy, most likely 2/2 acute viral myocarditis
  16. dilated cardiomyopathy
    etiology
    diagnosis
    • toxic
    • metabolic
    • infectious: viral or idiopathic (common following coxsackievirus B, parvovirus B19, hHV 6, adenovirus, enterovirus)
    • diagnosis: echocardiogram shows dilated ventricles with diffuse hypokinesis resulting in a low ejection fraction
  17. latex allergy
    pre-existing atopic dermatitis increase the risk of latex allergy

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