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  1. Aspirin exacerbated respiratory disease (AERD)
    • 1. Asthma
    • 2. chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyposis
    • 3. bronchospasm or nasal congestion following ingestion of aspirin or NSAIDs
    • Tx: surgery, although polyps tend to recur
  2. Conductive hearing loss
    • obstruction of external sounds to inner ear
    • Etiology: cerumen impaction, middle ear fluid or infection, decreased movement of small bones, bony tumor in middle ear (otosclerosis)
  3. Sensorineural hearing loss
    involving inner ear, cochlea, or auditory nerve
  4. Rinne test
    • tuning fork on mastoid bone until sound is no longer heard, then moved to ear canal
    • Air conducted sound should be heard twice as long as bone-conducted
    • Abnormal Rinne test = conductive hearing loss
  5. Weber test
    • tuning fork on the middle of head
    • conductive hearing loss: louder in the affected ear
    • sensorineural hearing loss: louder in the unaffected ear
  6. medication-induced ototoxicity
    • aminoglycoside antibiotics
    • chemotherapeutic agents
    • aspirin: tinnitus, hearing loss at high doses
    • loop diuretics (furosemide): greater risk in high doses
  7. Epiglotitis
    • haemophilus influenzae
    • streptococcus pyogenes
  8. Malignant otitis externa
    • Pseudomonas aeruginosa
    • elderly diabetic patients
    • presentation: ear pain and drainage, non responsive to topical medications
    • granulation tissue in the ear canal
    • complications: osteomyelitis
    • Dx: CT or MRI
    • Tx: systemic antibiotics (anti-pseudomonals), such as ciprofloxacin
  9. Primary hyperparathyroidism
    etiology, sx
    • Parathyroid adenoma: 90%
    • hyperplasia (6%)
    • Carcinoma (1-2%)
    • Associated with MEN 2A

    • Sx:
    • 80% asymptomatic
    • non-specific: fatigue, weakness, mild depression
    • Abdominal pain, renal stones, bone pain/fractures
  10. Primary hyperparathyroidism
    • hypercalcemia with elevated or inappropriately normal PTH
    • 24hr urinary calcium > 250mg
    • Urine calcium/creatinine >0.02
    • Bone mineral density testing to evaluate for osteopenia/osteoporosis
Card Set:
2013-10-26 21:34:40

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