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What is a patiogen?
What are the two types of pathogens?
- any disease causing organism
- cause infection and disease in healthy people
- infect host only when immune defense is weakened (immunocompromised)
What are parasites?
How do they deal with endosymbiosis?
What is parasitism?
pathogens or any organism that lives on or in another organism and depends on it; host, large organisms that support survival of others.
when complex microbial interactions where one organism benefits from another and the host is harmed.
example of endosymbiosis and requires exteded relationship or coexistence between parasite and host.
What do infections usually involve in regards to several hosts and their complex life cycles?
What are they?
Definitive (final) host- maintains mature and sexually reproductive form of the parasite.
Intermediate hosts- maintains immature parasite and immature parasite usually undergoes various stages of development before transferred to definitive host.
Based on site of colonization, what are the two kinds of papasites?
What are they?
Ectoparasite-organism that lives on surface of host.
Endoparasite-lives inside of the host.
Based on the acquisition source, what are the two parasites?
What are they?
Exogenous- are acquired infections that result from encounters with pathogens in the environment.
Endogenous- acquired infections that are caused by pathogens or potential pathogens in or on the body
What are intracellular pathogens?
What are the two types?
pathogens based on the ability of the pathogen to invade (and live) within host cells.
Obligate intracellular pathogen- will not grow outside of a living eukaryotic cell and are not free living.
Facultative intracellular pathogen- can be free living or live within a host cell.
What are the two types of Host-pathogen interactions?
Pathogenesis- process by which microbes cause disease in a host and the steps involved in disease progression within the host.
Pathogenicity- ability of microbes to cause disease and capacity of a pathogen to invade and harm a host.
What does pathogenicity depend on?
What is it related to?
- Physical/structural factors (capsul, outer membrane)
- Biochemical factors (proteins (toxins))
- Genetic factors (resistance genes)
What are pathogenecity islands?
How are they acquired?
What are the exceptions?
large segments of dna that code for virulence factors.
- acquired during horizontal transfer.
- clusters of pathogenicity genes encoding virulence factors.
by what is virulence determine that are associated with the pathogen?
What is virulence?
What is it important for?
- Virulence is the degree or intensity of pathogenicity.
- measure of severity of a disease
- degree of harm to the host
Important indicator of disease progression
What are virulence factors?
What are examples?
Virulence factors are products
that microbes release that increase invasiveness or pathogenicity
What do virulence factores contribute?
integral microbial cell components or secreted products (lps, capsule, fimbriae)
secreted products, (enzymes or toxins)
genetic (presence of resistance genes)