Teaching Theories Midterm
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Action research is...
Observations conducted by the teacher in the classroom "In Action."
The merging of ideas
Ideas similar to ones own thoughts or beliefs.
Another part of adaptation involves changing or altering our existing schemas in light of new information, a process known as accommodation. Accommodation involves altering existing schemas, or ideas, as a result of new information or new experiences. New schemas may also be developed during this process.
Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
The ability to do things without occupying the mind with the low-level details required, allowing it to become an automatic response pattern or habit.
A concept found in moral, political, and bioethical philosophy.
Autonomy refers to the capacity of a rational individual to make an informed, un-coerced decision. Independant thinking.
The cerebellum is...
A region of the brain that plays an important role in motor control.
It is also involved in some cognitive functions such as attention and language, and probably in some emotional functions such as fear and pleasure responses.
However it's movement-related functions are most clearly understood.
Child abuse is...
The physical, sexual, emotional mistreatment, or neglect of children.
Concrete operational is...
The concrete operational stage is the third stage in Jean Piaget's theory of cognitive development.
- Kids at this point of development begin to think more logically, but their thinking can also be very rigid. They tend to struggle with abstract and hypothetical concepts.
- They see things clear cut(in black and white).
Conservation is one of Piaget's developmental accomplishments, in which the child understands that changing the form of a substance or object does not change its amount, overall volume, or mass.
The Sensorimotor is...
Piaget's first stage of cognitive development.
During this stage, infants and toddlers acquire knowledge through sensory experiences and manipulating objects.
The Preoperational is...
- Piaget's second stage of cognitive development.
- At this stage, kids learn through pretend play but still struggle with logic and taking the point of view of other people.
The Formal Operational is...
The final stage of Piaget's theory involves an increase in logic, the ability to use deductive reasoning, and an understanding of abstract ideas.
Schemas are categories of knowledge that help us to interpret and understand the world.
Piaget believed that all children try to strike a balance between assimilation and accommodation, which is achieved through a mechanism Piaget called equilibration. As children progress through the stages of cognitive development, it is important to maintain a balance between applying previous knowledge (assimilation) and changing behavior to account for new knowledge (accommodation). Equilibration helps explain how children are able to move from one stage of thought into the next.
Who is Jean Piaget?
Piaget's stage theory describes the cognitive development of children. Cognitive development involves changes in cognitive process and abilities. In Piaget's view, people create knowledge from direct experiences.
Who is Erik Erikson?
best known for formulating the Psychosocial Stages of Development which outlined personal identity development from birth to old age. He also coined the term Identity Crisis which describes when a person loses their sense of self.
Erik Erikson's Psychosocial Stages of Development?
The first stage of development (from birth to 18 months) is Trust vs. Mistrust. At this stage, the child learns to trust that the world is a safe place and that he can rely on his caregivers to provide for his needs, or to mistrust the world because his needs are not met. Successful resolution brings about the virtue of Hope.
The second stage (18 months to 3 years) is Autonomy vs. Shame. As the child learns to walk and begins to explore his environment, he learns autonomy as he develops more control over his bodily functions and his surroundings, or shame and doubt over his ability. If successfully resolved, the child develops the virtue of Will.
The third stage (3 to 5 years) is Initiative vs. Guilt. He learns initiative as he begins to do things for himself, or guilt over making his own choices. Successful resolution brings about the virtue of Purpose.
The fourth stage (6 to 12 years) is the conflict of Industry vs. Inferiority. As the child goes to school, he begins to compare himself with others and develops a sense of industry as he accomplishes new things, or a feeling of inferiority if he considers himself inadequate as compared to others. If successfully resolved, the child learns the virtue of Competence.
The fifth stage (12 to 18 years) corresponds to adolescence, when the child struggles between Identity vs. Role Confusion. The adolescent tries to develop his own sense of identity, but may experience role confusion as he tries to reconcile his own desires with that of others around him. Successful resolution enables the virtue of Fidelity.
The sixth stage (18 to 35 years) corresponds to young adulthood. The significant conflict that must be dealt with during this period is Intimacy vs. Isolation as the individual attempts to settle down and start a family. If successfully resolved, he learns Love.
The seventh stage (35 to 55 or 65) is that of the conflict between Generativity vs. Stagnation. This corresponds to the midlife crisis, when the adult assess his contributions to society, or becomes self-absorbed and stagnates. Successful resolution brings about the virtue of Care.
The last stage (65 onwards) is the conflict of Integrity vs. Despair, corresponding to late adulthood, when individuals look back at their accomplishments in life. If successfully resolved, the individual gains Wisdom.
Studies based strictly on observations.
a statistical description indicating the direction and strength of a relationship
Significant research is?
When the result of a research project is unlikely to have occurred by chance.
descriptive research is...
the type of research that attempts to record what happens in the classroom without changing any of the variables.
Experimental research is?
The type of research that attempts to establish cause and effect relationships.
Random sampling is?
A control group where each person is given an equal opportunity to be in the group.
Broad frameworks that attempt to explain relationships between variables.
external support for helping children problem solve during problem solving.
Zone of proximal development?
The area between the learners current developmental stage and the stage the learner could achieve with assistance.
What is Object permanence?
Object permanence is the understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be observed.
Those who haven't developed Object permanence think is things are "out of sight, they're out of mind."
People who have a positive self concept.
The main conflict for adolescents.
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences is?
The Theory of Multiple Intelligences states that intelligence exists in a number of sensory modalities (styles and abilities), rather than as a single ability. Originally proposed by Howard Gardner in 1983, this theory included eight "modalities" that he identified as musical - rhythmic, visual - spatial, verbal - linguistic, logical - mathematical, bodily - kinesthetic, interpersonal, intrapersonal, and naturalistic.
when students with exceptional qualities participate in regular classroom lessons.
when students with exceptional abilities participate in a mix of both regular class lessons and special education classes.
hyperactive students are?
Students who continually move about and cannot sit still.
Frontal lobes are?
A region of the cerebral cortex at the front of the brain (lying just behind the forehead) that is necessary for motor control and more complex, high-end functioning like speech, decision making, and judgments. The last part of the brain to develop.
Genetically programmed, naturally occurring changes over time.
who is Vygotsky ?
Established the social cultural theory of learning.
What Is Sociocultural Theory?
The important contributions that society makes to individual development. This theory stresses the interaction between developing people and the culture in which they live.
Fluid intelligence ?
Fluid intelligence to the ability to reason quickly and to think abstractly. the ability to perceive relationships independent of previous specific practice or instruction concerning those relationships.
Crystallized intelligence refers to the knowledge and skills that are accumulated over a lifetime. This type of intelligence tends to increase with age.
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