USU 1350

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Author:
Anonymous
ID:
24048
Filename:
USU 1350
Updated:
2010-06-18 17:14:40
Tags:
Scientific Method
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Description:
Scientific Method
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  1. Goals of Science (4)
    • Understand variation
    • Understand cause and effect
    • Predict future events (based on the above)
    • Reproducible results
  2. Scientific Method (8)
    • Observations
    • Inductive and Deductive
    • Hypothesis
    • Experiments
    • Results
    • Conclusion
    • Models
    • More questions
  3. Who invented Scientific Method and why
    Sir Francis Bacon - protocols to eliminate biases
  4. Observation (3)
    • Patterns exist
    • Breaks in patterns exist
    • Questions arise
  5. Inductive Approach
    • Empirical data leads to generalization
    • (ex. the more I water grass the greener it becomes - more water equals greener...only correlation not cause and effect)
  6. Deductive Approach
    • General idea leads to prediction leads to experiment
    • (ex. More water equals greener grass - prediction: different amounts of watter affect how green grass becomes. - experiment: Vary amount of water)
  7. Experiment (2)
    • attempts to control variables
    • deliberately imposes some manipulation to observe a response (treatment)
  8. Model (4)
    • abstract representation of real
    • simplify
    • develop predictions
    • must be validated
  9. Types of Models
    • Statistical
    • Nonstatistical
  10. Statistical
    Mechanism and relationship between variables known
  11. Nonstatistical (Analytical)
    Mechanism and relationship between variables not known
  12. Nonstatistical (simulation)
    • Complex
    • much computing
    • focus on individuals
    • takes into account variablity
  13. Noise (6)
    • sampling
    • accuracy
    • precision
    • bias
    • sampling error
    • fineness
  14. Sampling
    • Census - true population
    • Impossible to achieve
    • estimate
    • sample and then extrapolated to whole population
  15. accuracy
    • How close to true sample?
    • Closer equals more accurate
  16. Precision
    How repeatable is sample
  17. bias
    • systematic distortion from truth
    • can be identified
    • can be corrected
  18. sampling error
    • random distortion from true
    • cannot be identified
    • cannot be corrected
  19. fineness
    appropriateness of technique

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