# USU 1350

The flashcards below were created by user Anonymous on FreezingBlue Flashcards.

1. Goals of Science (4)
• Understand variation
• Understand cause and effect
• Predict future events (based on the above)
• Reproducible results
2. Scientific Method (8)
• Observations
• Inductive and Deductive
• Hypothesis
• Experiments
• Results
• Conclusion
• Models
• More questions
3. Who invented Scientific Method and why
Sir Francis Bacon - protocols to eliminate biases
4. Observation (3)
• Patterns exist
• Breaks in patterns exist
• Questions arise
5. Inductive Approach
• Empirical data leads to generalization
• (ex. the more I water grass the greener it becomes - more water equals greener...only correlation not cause and effect)
6. Deductive Approach
• General idea leads to prediction leads to experiment
• (ex. More water equals greener grass - prediction: different amounts of watter affect how green grass becomes. - experiment: Vary amount of water)
7. Experiment (2)
• attempts to control variables
• deliberately imposes some manipulation to observe a response (treatment)
8. Model (4)
• abstract representation of real
• simplify
• develop predictions
• must be validated
9. Types of Models
• Statistical
• Nonstatistical
10. Statistical
Mechanism and relationship between variables known
11. Nonstatistical (Analytical)
Mechanism and relationship between variables not known
12. Nonstatistical (simulation)
• Complex
• much computing
• focus on individuals
• takes into account variablity
13. Noise (6)
• sampling
• accuracy
• precision
• bias
• sampling error
• fineness
14. Sampling
• Census - true population
• Impossible to achieve
• estimate
• sample and then extrapolated to whole population
15. accuracy
• How close to true sample?
• Closer equals more accurate
16. Precision
How repeatable is sample
17. bias
• systematic distortion from truth
• can be identified
• can be corrected
18. sampling error
• random distortion from true
• cannot be identified
• cannot be corrected
19. fineness
appropriateness of technique
 Author: Anonymous ID: 24048 Card Set: USU 1350 Updated: 2010-06-18 21:14:40 Tags: Scientific Method Folders: Description: Scientific Method Show Answers: