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What is cellular respiration?
a process that requires O2 and uses energy from glucose (macromolecules) to produce ATP and water
what is the chemical equation for cellular respiration?
C6H12O6 + 6O2 ===> 6CO2 + 6H20 + ATP
- organelle where cellular respiration takes place
transfer of one or more electrons from one reactant to another, there are two types of redox reactions: oxadation, reduction
the LOSS of electrons or gaining of oxygen
the GAIN of electrons or gaining of oxygen
What are the four main reactions of cellular respiration?
- 1. glycolysis (splitting of sugar)
- 2. Grooming phase
- 3. Krebs cycle (citric acid cycle)
- 4. Electron transfer chain (ETC) and oxidative phosphorylation , also called chemiosmosis
Where does glycolysis take place?
in the cytosol, just outside the mitochondria
Where does the grooming phase take place?
migration from the cytosol to the matrix
Where does the Krebs cycle take place?
the mitochondrial matrix
where does ETC and chemiosmosis take place
inner mitochondrial membrane
What are the two phases (10 steps) of glycolysis?
- A. Energy investment phase-preparatory phase (first 5 steps)
- B. Energy yielding phase-energy payoff phase (second 5 steps)
Summarize the energy investment phase of glycolysis
- -2 ATP used (invested)
- -leaving 2 ADP + P left
- -glucose (6C) split in 2
- -Glyceradehyde phosphate (2-3C) also known as G3P or GAP is the product
Summarize the energy yielding phase of glycolysis
- from 3 G3P:
- -4 ATP produced
- -2 NADH produced
- -2 pyruvate produced (2-3C)
What is the total yield of the glycolysis phase of cellular respiration?
- >2-ATP (substrate level phosphorylation)
ATP is formed when an enzyme transfers a phosphate group from substrate to ADP
Summarize the grooming phase of cellular respiration
2 pyruvate (3C) molecules are transported through the mitochondria membrane to the matrix and are converted to 2 Acetyl CoA (2C) molecules
What are the end products of the grooming phase of cellular respiration?
- 2-Acetyl CoA (2C)
Summarize the Krebs Cycle (citric acid cycle) of cellular respiration
- Acetyl CoA (2C) bonds with oxalacetic acid (4C-0AA) to make citrate (6C)
- it takes two turns of the Krebs cycle to oxidize 1 glucose molecule
What is the total net yield of the Krebs cycle or cellular respiration?
- In 2 turns:
- 2-ATP (substrate level phosphorylation)
Explain the electron transfer chain and oxidative phosphorylation (chemiosmosis)
- -uses ETC (cytochrome proteins) and ATP synthase (enzyme) to make ATP
- -ETC pumps H+ (protons) across inner-membrane space therefore lowering pH in inner-membrane space (creats concentration gradient)
- -H+ then moves via diffusion (proton motive force) through ATP synthase to make ATP
- -All NADH converts to 3 ATP
- -FADH2 converts to ATP (enters ETC at a lower level then NADH)
what is the total ATP yield for cellular respiration?
- -2 ATP-glycolysis (substrate level phosphorylation)
- -4-6 ATP-converted from 2 NADH-glycolysis
- -6 ATP-converted from 2 NADH-grooming phase
- -2 ATP- Krebs cycle (substrate-level phosphorylation)
- -18 ATP- converted from 6 NADH-Krebs cycle
- -4 ATO-converted from 2FADH2-Krebs cycle
- 36-38 ATP TOTAL
What is the final electron acceptor?
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