Psychology Ch. 5 Learning

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Psychology Ch. 5 Learning
2013-10-28 20:30:28
Pavlov classical conditioning learning operant skinner

Pavlov, classical conditioning, learning, operant conditioning, skinner
Show Answers:

  1. A dog is shown food and it begins to salivate. The food is the _____ and the salivating is the _____
    unconditioned stimulus (US), unconditioned response
  2. A bell is introduced to a dog before it eats. It is the ____
    neutral stimulus
  3. A dog begins to salivate when a bell is rung after repeated pairings of the bell and food. The bell is the _____ and the salivation is the _____
    conditioned stimulus, conditioned response
  4. classical conditioning
    conditioning which results in a neutral stimulus eliciting the same response as an unconditioned stimulus.
  5. what is spontaneous recovery?
    After a response to a certain stimulus is extinguished, it may return again spontaneously at a later time when the animal is again exposed to the conditioned stimulus
  6. What is reconditioning?
    The proces of relearning a conditioned response after extinction. It usually occurs much more rapidly than the first time around.
  7. what is stimulus generalization?
    the tendency of stimuli similar to the CS to elicit a CR
  8. what is stimulus discrimination?
    the ability to differntiate among related stimuli. For example, you may be afraid of big dogs, but you know for a fact that golden retrievers, although they are big, are friendly.
  9. what is operant conditioning?
    the probability of a response is changed by a change in its consequences.
  10. What is the law of effect?
    a response that is followed by satisfying consequences becomes more probable (reinforcement) and a response that is following by dissatisfying consequences becomes less probable.
  11. what does "reinforcer" mean?
    reinforcer refers to a stimulus or event that increases the likelihood that the behavior it follows will be repeated.
  12. What is continuous reinforcement?
    receiving reinforcement (a reward) every time one behaves a certain way
  13. what is intermittent reinforcement?
    not receiving reinforcement every time one behaves a certain way, but only sometimes.
  14. What are the four simple intermittent reinforcement schedules?
    • 1. fixed ratio
    • - ex. every 100 envelopes stuffed

    • 2. variable ratio
    • - ex. slot machines

    • 3. fixed-interval
    • ex. mid-term

    • 4. Variable interval
    • ex. pop quizzes
  15. which reinforcement schedule is best?
    variable ratio
  16. successive approximations
    rewarding actions that are closer and closer to a goal action
  17. what is experimental neurosis
    distress due to not being able to predict when a reward is coming
  18. what is superstitious behavior?
    when one perceives a coincidental stimulus to play a role in receiving a reward
  19. what is a discriminative stimulus
    a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced

    ex. in skinners experiment, the lever is the discriminative stimulus
  20. what is stimulus generalization?
    if you give someone a cake --> that person says it was good --> then you give a cake to someone else because of the response you got from the other person
  21. response generalization
    you give someone a cake --> person says it was great --> you give that person some coffee next time. you are trying a different response/behavior
  22. escape conditioning
    negative reinforcement from an event.

    ex. dog is on a shock pad and is shocked --> jumps to other side. jumping to the other side is being conditioned
  23. avoidance conditioning
    negative reinforcement from anticipation

    • ex. 
    • a dog is on a shock pad and is shown a light that indicates that it will be shocked--> so jumps to other side --> jumping to other side is being conditioned
  24. What are the four processes of observation learning (social learning)
    attention, retention in memory, reproduction of observed behavior, reinforcement