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A dog is shown food and it begins to salivate. The food is the _____ and the salivating is the _____
unconditioned stimulus (US), unconditioned response
A bell is introduced to a dog before it eats. It is the ____
A dog begins to salivate when a bell is rung after repeated pairings of the bell and food. The bell is the _____ and the salivation is the _____
conditioned stimulus, conditioned response
conditioning which results in a neutral stimulus eliciting the same response as an unconditioned stimulus.
what is spontaneous recovery?
After a response to a certain stimulus is extinguished, it may return again spontaneously at a later time when the animal is again exposed to the conditioned stimulus
What is reconditioning?
The proces of relearning a conditioned response after extinction. It usually occurs much more rapidly than the first time around.
what is stimulus generalization?
the tendency of stimuli similar to the CS to elicit a CR
what is stimulus discrimination?
the ability to differntiate among related stimuli. For example, you may be afraid of big dogs, but you know for a fact that golden retrievers, although they are big, are friendly.
what is operant conditioning?
the probability of a response is changed by a change in its consequences.
What is the law of effect?
a response that is followed by satisfying consequences becomes more probable (reinforcement) and a response that is following by dissatisfying consequences becomes less probable.
what does "reinforcer" mean?
reinforcer refers to a stimulus or event that increases the likelihood that the behavior it follows will be repeated.
What is continuous reinforcement?
receiving reinforcement (a reward) every time one behaves a certain way
what is intermittent reinforcement?
not receiving reinforcement every time one behaves a certain way, but only sometimes.
What are the four simple intermittent reinforcement schedules?
- 1. fixed ratio
- - ex. every 100 envelopes stuffed
- 2. variable ratio
- - ex. slot machines
- 3. fixed-interval
- ex. mid-term
- 4. Variable interval
- ex. pop quizzes
which reinforcement schedule is best?
rewarding actions that are closer and closer to a goal action
what is experimental neurosis
distress due to not being able to predict when a reward is coming
what is superstitious behavior?
when one perceives a coincidental stimulus to play a role in receiving a reward
what is a discriminative stimulus
a stimulus in the presence of which a particular response will be reinforced
ex. in skinners experiment, the lever is the discriminative stimulus
what is stimulus generalization?
if you give someone a cake --> that person says it was good --> then you give a cake to someone else because of the response you got from the other person
you give someone a cake --> person says it was great --> you give that person some coffee next time. you are trying a different response/behavior
negative reinforcement from an event.
ex. dog is on a shock pad and is shocked --> jumps to other side. jumping to the other side is being conditioned
negative reinforcement from anticipation
- a dog is on a shock pad and is shown a light that indicates that it will be shocked--> so jumps to other side --> jumping to other side is being conditioned
What are the four processes of observation learning (social learning)
attention, retention in memory, reproduction of observed behavior, reinforcement