Microbiology 474 -5 -Infection and disease
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What is the difference between imtermediate and definite host ?
Definitive (Final) host:–Maintains the mature form of the parasite–Maintains the sexually reproductive form of the parasite•
-Intermediate host(s):–Maintains the immature parasite–The immature parasite usually undergoes various stages of development before being transferred to the definitive host.
What is the difference between endoparasite and ectoparasite ?
Ectoparasite: organism that lives on the surface of a host
Endoparasite: organism that lives on the inside of the host
What is the difference between exogenously and endogenously aquired parasite ?
•Exogenously acquired infections results from encounters with pathogens in the environment–Endogenous
•Endogenously acquired infections are caused by pathogens or potential pathogens in or on the body.
Difference between intracellular pathogens - obligate and facultative ?
•Obligate intracellular pathogen–Will not grow outside of a living eucaryotic cell–Are not free living
•Facultative intracellular pathogen–Can be free living
What is pathogensis ?
The process by which microbes cause disease in a host.•The steps involved in disease progression within the host.
What is pathogenicity ?
Pathogenicity•the ability of microbes to cause disease•the capacity of a pathogen to invade and harm a host
what are pathogenicity islands ?
Pathogenicity islands–Large segments of DNA that code for virulence factors; often acquired during horizontal transfer–Clusters of pathogenicity genes encoding virulence factors•Exceptions:–Plasmids, prophages
What is virulence ?
Virulence–the degree or intensity of pathogenicity–the measure of the severity of a disease–The degree of harm to the host
What are virulence factors ? Name some ?
Virulence Factors–Products of microbes that increases the invasiveness or pathogenicity of the organism–Examples:•Toxins•Enzymes•Capsules•FlagellaHost-Pathogen Interactions
What is the difference between Lethal dose and Infectious dose ?
Lethal dose (LD50): the number of pathogens that kill 50% of hosts within a specified period of time; often associated with toxin production
•Infectious dose (ID50): the number of pathogens that infect 50% of hosts within a specified period of time
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