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what is the backbone of the plasma membrane made off?
- *lipid bilayer
plasma membrane structure- does it require energy to create the arrangement of the lipids on the membrane?
plasma membrane structure- how are the phospholipids oriented on a plasma membrane ? (2)
- -phosphate group is facing the cytosol and extracellular fluids
- *the polar side
-non-polar side is facing the inside of the membrane
plasma membrane structure- description of cholesterol
plasma membrane structure- what does cholesterol do?
- stiffens the plasma membrane
- *necessary for the integrity of plasma membrane
plasma membrane structure- 2 types of membrane proteins
plasma membrane structure- (membrane proteins) what is the function of integral proteins?
often function as channels
plasma membrane structure-(membrane proteins) where are they located?
they are embedded in membrane
plasma membrane structure-(membrane proteins)how do peripheral proteins function?
as receptors or enzymes
plasma membrane structure-(membrane proteins) where are the peripheral proteins lcoated?
- internal or external aspects of membrane
- *they do not go across the membrane
what is the function of the membrane dependent on?
the types of proteins that are on it
plasma membrane structure) what are the 2 ttypes of carbohydrate attchments?
plasma membrane structure) what is a glycolipid?
carbohydrate on a lipid
plasma membrane structure) what is a glycoprotein?
carbohydrate on a protein
plasma membrane structure) where are carbohydrate attachments usually located?
plasma membrane structure) what does a carbohydrate attachment do?
contribute to the polarity for that side of the membrane
plasma membrane structure) what is the function of lipid rafts?
plasma membrane structure) what does a lipid raft consist of? (2)
plasma membrane structure) what percent fo lipid rafts make of plasma membrane?
specialized membrane structures) for what structure is microvilli important for?
specialized membrane structures) what is the microvilli core made up off?
membrane-membranes adhesions) what 2 things make up glycocalyx?
glycoproteins and glycolipids
membrane-membranes adhesions) what do glycocalyx help with and why?
they are able to interact with a neighboring plasma membrane bc they are polar
membrane-membranes adhesions) in what fashion do wavy contours fit?
tongue and groove action
membrane junctions) where is there an abundancy of tight junctions?
membrane junctions) description of tight juncntions?
fused proteins molecules in adjacent membranes
membrane junctions) functions of tight junctons? (3)
-does not allow material to come in between the cells
-holds adjacent cells togther of the same tissue
membrane junctions) where do tihgt juncitons tend to be located?
- towards the apical
- *it faces teh lumen or exterior
membrane junctions) what are desmosomes made up off/ (2)
membrane junctions) fucntions of desmosomes?
- provide integrity
- *helps to hold adjacent cells together
membrane junctions) where are they common in?
in cells that are exposed to torsion
membrane junctions) what type of cytoskleton do desmosomes contain?
membrane junctions)description of gap junctions
proteins form hollow passageways between cells
membrane junctions) what do gap junctions allow?
- materials to flow between cells (usually ions)
- *quick commmunication between cells and action potential propagaiton
3 functions of plasma membrane
-cell to cell adhesion to form tissues
transport processes) passive transport- what is simple diffusion?
- substances will move from an area of high concentration to low concentration
- *bc of the tendency of molecules to randomize
transport processes) passive transport- what is osmosis?
diffusion of water molecules from a high concentration of water to an area of low concentration of water
transport processes) a solution with a high osmolarity is one whcih...
has a high particle concentration that attracts water
what does osmolarity refer to?
number of particles per liter
what do osmolatity refer to?
number of particles per kilogram or weight of a solution
transport processes) passive transport- what is fascilitated diffusion?
- involves the presence of protein transport proteins
- *particles still move from high to low concentraton but channels make it easier to cross
transport processes) passive transport- what is filtration?
- water and solutes pushed through a membrane
- *high pressure ot low pressure
pressure changes- Osmotic
pressure that resists further water entry into a chamber due to osmosis
*** high osmolatity of a solution means that it will have a high osmotic pressure therefore more water that will be drwan in to that chamber before you reach equilibrium
pressure changes- hydrostatic
- pressure that is exerted by fluid on the walls of a chamber that enclose it
- *blood pressure
what is isotonic?
- no net water movement
- *will retain its shape
what is hypotonic?
- solution surrounding the cell is less concentrated than inside
- *water will rush from outside to inside
what is hypertonic?
- soluiton outside of cell is more concentrated than inside
- *water will move out
active processes) what is primary active transport?
- moves molecules opposite to diffusion gradient
- *requires energy
- **can move 2 molecules at once in either same directions or opposite
active processes) what are 2 types of primary active transport?
active processes) primary active transport- symport
2 molecules are moved at the same direction using primary active transport
active processes) primary active transport- what is antiport?
moves 2 molecules in opossite directions
active processes) secondary transport- what is it?
-after concentration gradient has been formed from primary active transport, the substance that was transported may diffuse and drag along another molecule
vesicular active transport) what is exocytosis?
vesicles carry molecules to the plasma membrane then fuse and excrete the molecules to the exterior
vesicular active transport) endocytosis- what is phagocytosis?
plasma membrane engulfs a particle that is outside of cel and brings it inside via vesicle transport
vesicular active transport) endocytosis- what is pinocytosis?
- abosrption of a liquid along with the nutrients dissolved in it.
- *vesicles bring the liquid along with the nutrients into the cell
vesicular active transport) endocytosis- what are receptor mediated endocytosis?
-receptor is located on the plasma membrane
-membrane that binds with a particular molecule enduces endocytotic vesicles to bring the moelcules inside
what is the main role of tight junctions?
what do desmosomes prevent?
cells from separating
cell-cell adhesion and interaction- what areglycocalyx
carbohydrate groups on membrane
cell-cell adhesion and interaction- 2 things glycocalyx do?
-migration and signaling
cell-cell adhesion and interaction- glycocalyx what two movements are they involved in?
-movement of cells during development and
- of certain immune cells along tissues
cell to environment interaction) what is a ligand?
- environmental substance
- *hormone, NT, drug
cell to environment interaction) what happens when a ligand binds to a receptor?
results in change of the metabolic activity of that cell
cell to environment interaction) types of receptors- function of catalytic proteins
when ligand binds, it causes the receptors to catalyze a reaction
*often are enzymes
cell to environment interaction) types of receptors- function ofchannel-linked receptors
transmembrane (integral) proteins which open and close in response to a specific signal
*controls entrance/exit of specific substances
cell to environment interaction) types of receptors- where are channel linked receptors usually found in?
cell to environment interaction) types of receptors- how do g-protein linked receptors work?
\utilize assistance of g proteins to effect signal and create a cascade of events to finalize cellular event
cell to environment interaction) types of receptors- is a second messenger involveed in g protein linked receptors?
cell to environment interaction) types of receptors- description of how secondary messengers work
-pass message from membrane protein to intracellular protein which will execute the command from the original ligand
*this reaction would not have occurred had the ligand not binded to the receptor and gave the mesasge to it