Cranial Nerves.txt

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Cranial Nerves.txt
2010-06-18 18:05:30
Cranial Nerves

Cranial Nerves
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  1. Cranial Nerve mnemonic:
    • On Old Olympus' Towering Tops a Friendly Viking Grew Vines and Hops
    • Olfactory-S
    • Optic- S
    • Oculomotor- M
    • Trochlear- M
    • Trigeminal: Opthalmic (S), Maxillary (S), Mandibular(B)
    • Abducens- M
    • Facial- B
    • Vestibulocochlear (Auditory)- S
    • Glossopharyngeal- B
    • Vagus- B
    • Spinal Accessory- M
    • Hypoglossal- M
  2. Olfactory n.
    • I. Sensory from olfactory epithelium
    • Passes through: Cribiform Plate
    • Smell test with cotton ball with alcohol but not too strong to stimulate V.
  3. Optic n.
    • II. Sensory vision) from retina
    • passes through: Optic Canal
    • Test: Menace response. *II in VII (Facial) out
    • Obstacle course, ball across floor (quietly), or pupillary light reflex (II in, III out)
  4. Oculomotor n.
    • III. Motor to DVM rectus mm., ventral oblique and levator palpebrae superioris m.
    • PAsses through orbital fissure
    • Test: DVM movement of pupil in head (tracking), look for lateral strabismus, droopy upper eyelid, pupillary light reflex (II in III out) including indirect response to contralateral eye.
    • ***PNS to ciliary ganglion (iris sphincter m.)
  5. Trochlear n.
    • IV. Motor to dorsal oblique m.
    • Passes through Orbital fissure
    • Oblique dĂ©viation of pupil in lesioned animal (not obvious in species with round pupils)
  6. Trigeminal n. (Opthalmic branch)
    • V. Sensory from globe, periorbita, nasal mucosa, and medial aspect of palpebrae
    • Passes through orbital fissure
    • Palpebral reflex, medial canthus (V. in VII out)
  7. Trigeminal n. (Maxillary branch)
    • V. Sensory from upper lip, nasal mucosa, lateral aspect of palpebrae
    • Passes through round foramen and rostral alar foramen
    • Palpebral reflex, lateral canthus, test sensation to upper lip or nasal mucosa
  8. Trigeminal n. (Mandibular branch)
    • V. sensory from lower jaw and auricotemporal area and motor to of mastication
    • Passes through the oval foramen
    • Test sensation to lower jaw/lip or auriculotemporal area, or look for neurogenic atrophy to muscles of mastication.
  9. Abducens n.
    • VI. Motor to retractor blubi m. and lateral rectus m.
    • Passes orbital fissure
    • Lateral movement of the eye (globe) in the head (tracking), look for medial strabismus in a lesioned animal
  10. Facial n.
    • VII. Motor to muscles of facial expression and sensory (taste) from the rostral 2/3 of the tongue.
    • Passes through Stylomastoid foramen (motor fibers) and internal acoustic meatus
    • ****PNS to salivary and lacrimal gl.
  11. Vestibulocochlear (Auditory) n.
    • VIII. Sensory for hearing and balance
    • Passing through internal acoustic meatus
    • Test hearing: pots and pans. Also look for vestibular signs…nystagmus, head tilt, circling and balance problems
  12. Glossopharyngeal n.
    • IX. Sensory to tongue and pharyngeal mucosa and motor to pharynx
    • Passing through jugular foramen and tympanooccipital fissure
    • Test gag reflex, swallowing (history of coughing/gagging when drinking or eating?)
    • **** PNS to parotid and mucosal gland
  13. Vagus n.
    • X. Some motor to pharynx and esophagus. Sensory to ear canal and epiglottis
    • Passes through jugular foramen and tympanooccipital fissure
    • Test: listen to heart (incurased with lesion), listen to gut (decreased with lesion), gag reflex
  14. Spinal Accessory n.
    • XI. Motor to trapezius, omotransversarius, sternocephalicus, and cleidocephalicus mm. Also motor to larynx via recurrent laryngeal n.
    • Passes through jugular foramen and tympanooccipital fissure
    • Test neurogenic atrophy of these mm. with lesion
  15. Hypoglossal n.
    • XII. Motor to extrinsic and intrinsic mm. of tongue
    • Passes through hypoglossal canal
    • Test tongue tone, tongue neurogenic atrophy, pull tongue or watch dog lap up water
  16. Name nerves with PNS activity:
  17. Name nerves with both motor and sensory innervation:
    • Trigeminal, Facial, Glossopharyngeal, Vagus
    • 5,7,9,10
  18. Name nerves with only Sensory innervation:
    • 1,2,8
    • Olfactory, Optic, Vestibulocochlear
  19. Name nerves with only motor innervation:
    • 3,4,6,11,12
    • Oculomotor, Trochlear, Abducens, Spinal Accessory, and Hypoglossal