Biology and Enzymes
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How do motor proteins work?
Motor proteins use ATP as a source of energy for movement . Made up the head hinge and tail. the walking analogy the ground is the filament, your leg is the head and you hip is the hinge.
Three types of motor protein movement
- 1.Motor protein carries cargo along the filament
- 2.Filaments move
- 3.Bending the filament
What molecules make up the cell membrane /bilayer?
Lipids, Proteins and carbohydrates
What are transmembrane proteins?
regions are physically embedded in bilayer. Across
What are Lipid-ancored proteins?
Amino acid is covalently linked to a lipid
What is a lipid raft?
lipids can also aggregate if they are strongly associated with one another, high amount of cholesterol, unique set.
Factors affecting fluidity
- 1. Length of fatty acid tail- shorter tails are less likely to react creating more fluidity
- 2. Double Bonds- create a kink making it harder for the in interact
- 3.Cholerterol- can stabilize the membrane
How are lipids synthesized?
- In eukaryotes, the _cytosol_ and _endomembrane system_ work together to synthesize lipids
- Fatty acid building blocks are made via
- enzymes in the cytosol or taken into cells from food
- Process occurs at cytosolic leaf of the _Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
What is Passive Transport?
Requires no input of energy and goes down or with the gradient
What is passive diffusion?
diffusion of a solute through a membrane with out a transport protein
what is facilitated diffusion?
diffusion of a solute through a membrane with the help of a transport protein
What is Active Transport?
Requires input of energy and goes up or against gradient
what is isotonic?
Equal water and solute concentration on either side
What is hypertonic?
Soulte concentration is higher and water concentration is lower
What is Hypotonic?
The solute concentration is lower and the water concentration is higher.
What is osmosis?
Water diffuses through the membrane from an area where there is more water to where there is less water
What is crenation?
Shrinking of a cell- water goes out
What is osmotic lysing?
Swelling and bursting of a cell- water goes in
What are the two types of Transport Proteins?
Describe a channel transport?
Forms an open passageway, for direct diffusion of ion or molecules
Known as carriers, use conformational change like a pocket
Name the three types of transporters
- 1. Uniporter
- 2.Cotransporter or Sympoter
Describe a Uniporter
Transports a single ion or molecule
Describe a Cotransporter/Symporter
Two or more ions transported in the same direction
Describe a Antiporter
Two or more ions transported in the opposite direction.
What is Endocytosis?
is a process for moving items that are outside of the cell into the cytoplasm of the cell.
What is Exocytosis?
is a process for moving items from the cytoplasm of the cell to the outside.
What is Endergonic?
not spontaneous, takes energy in and is positive free energy change
What is Exergonic?
Is spontaneous, a release of energy and has a negative free energy charge
What is catabolic?
Breaking down- Exergonic
What is anabolic?
Synthesis of molecule- Endergonic
What is Oxidation?
Removal of electron
What is Reduction?
addition of an electron
Describe the process of Proteasome
Breaks down proteins using Ubiquitin “tags” that target improperly folded proteins
Describe Lysosomes break down
Contain hydrolyses to break down proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and carbohydrates
What is metabolism?
Consists of a series of catabolic and anabolic process in order to reproduce.
What is Competitive Inhibition?
Molecules bind to the active site inhibiting the ability for the substrate to bind
What are non-competitive inhibitors?
Binds to allosteric site
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