Biology and Enzymes

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Biology and Enzymes
2013-10-14 17:19:10
Enzymes Biology

Enzymes, Metabolism, Biology, Thermodynamics
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  1. How do motor proteins work?
    Motor proteins use ATP as a source of energy for movement . Made up the head hinge and tail. the walking analogy the ground is the filament, your leg is the head and you hip is the hinge.
  2. Three types of motor protein movement
    • 1.Motor protein carries cargo along the filament
    • 2.Filaments move
    • 3.Bending the filament
  3. What molecules make up the cell membrane /bilayer?
    Lipids, Proteins and carbohydrates
  4. What are transmembrane proteins?
    regions are physically embedded in bilayer. Across
  5. What are Lipid-ancored proteins?
    Amino acid is covalently linked to a lipid
  6. What is a lipid raft?
    lipids can also aggregate if they are strongly associated with one another, high amount of cholesterol, unique set.
  7. Factors affecting fluidity
    • 1. Length of fatty acid tail- shorter tails are less likely to react creating more fluidity 
    • 2. Double Bonds- create a kink making it harder for the in interact 
    • 3.Cholerterol- can stabilize the membrane
  8. How are lipids synthesized?
    • In eukaryotes, the _cytosol_ and _endomembrane system_ work together to synthesize lipids
    • Fatty acid building blocks are made via
    • enzymes in the cytosol or taken into cells from food
    • Process occurs at cytosolic leaf of the _Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER)
  9. What is Passive Transport?
    Requires no input of energy and goes down or with the gradient
  10. What is passive diffusion?
    diffusion of a solute through a membrane with out a transport protein
  11. what is facilitated diffusion?
    diffusion of a solute through a membrane with the help of a transport protein
  12. What is Active Transport?
    Requires input of energy and goes up or against gradient
  13. what is isotonic?
    Equal water and solute concentration on either side
  14. What is hypertonic?
    Soulte concentration is higher and water concentration is lower
  15. What is Hypotonic?
    The solute concentration is lower and the water concentration is higher.
  16. What is osmosis?
    Water diffuses through the membrane from an area where there is more water to where there is less water
  17. What is crenation?
    Shrinking of a cell- water goes out
  18. What is osmotic lysing?
    Swelling and bursting of a cell- water goes in
  19. What are the two types of Transport Proteins?
    • 1.Channels
    • 2.Transproter
  20. Describe a channel transport?
    Forms an open passageway, for direct diffusion of ion or molecules
  21. Describe Transporters
    Known as carriers, use conformational change like a pocket
  22. Name the three types of transporters
    • 1. Uniporter 
    • 2.Cotransporter or Sympoter
    • 3.Antiporter
  23. Describe a Uniporter
    Transports a single ion or molecule
  24. Describe a Cotransporter/Symporter
    Two or more ions transported in the same direction
  25. Describe a Antiporter
    Two or more ions transported in the opposite direction.
  26. What is Endocytosis?
    is a process for moving items that are outside of the cell into the cytoplasm of the cell.
  27. What is Exocytosis?
    is a process for moving items from the cytoplasm of the cell to the outside.
  28. What is Endergonic?
    not spontaneous, takes energy in and is positive free energy change
  29. What is Exergonic?
    Is spontaneous, a release of energy and has a negative free energy charge
  30. What is catabolic?
    Breaking down- Exergonic
  31. What is anabolic?
    Synthesis of molecule- Endergonic
  32. What is Oxidation?
    Removal of electron
  33. What is Reduction?
    addition of an electron
  34. Describe the process of Proteasome
    Breaks down proteins using Ubiquitin “tags” that target improperly folded proteins
  35. Describe Lysosomes break down
    Contain hydrolyses to break down proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and carbohydrates
  36. What is metabolism?
    Consists of a series of catabolic and anabolic process in order to reproduce.
  37. What is Competitive Inhibition?
    Molecules bind to the active site inhibiting the ability for the substrate to bind
  38. What are non-competitive inhibitors?
    Binds to allosteric site