the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment, interaction determine the distribution and abundance of organisms
studies how an organism's structure, physiology and (for animals) behaviors meet environmental challenges
is a group of individuals of the same species living in an area
is a group of populations of different species in an area
deals with the whole array of interacting species in an area
is a community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which they interact
emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling amongst the various biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) components
is a mosaic of connected ecosystems
deals with arrays of ecosystems and how that are arranged in a geographic region
the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet's ecosystems
examines the influence of energy and materials on organisms across the biosphere
is the movement of individuals away from centers of high population density or from their area or origin, contributes to global distribution of organisms
include organisms that are intentionally or accidently relocated from their original distribution, they can disrupt the communities or ecosystems which they have been introduced
at what temperature do cells rupture?
at what temperature do proteins denature?
how do mammals and birds regulate their internal temperature
by expending energy (shivering)
are the major ecological associations that occupy the broad geographic regions if land or water, varying combinations of biotic and abiotic factors determine the nature of biomes
when is water most dense?
in oceans and most lakes this temperature boundary separates the warm upper layer and cold deeper water
-many lakes undergo a semiannual mixing of their waters
-mixes oxygenated water from the surface with nutrient rich water from the bottom
In lakes the oligorthrophic zone...
is nutrient poor and oxygen rich
in lakes the eutophic zone is
nutrient rich and depleted of oxygen if ice covered in winter
in lakes the liltoral zone...
is shallow and well-lighted and has lots of rooted and floating aquatic plants
habitat with water some of the time and water saturated soil plants
what is the most prominent physical characteristic of streams and rivers?
-estuaries are the transition area between river and sea
-salinity varies with the rise and fall of the tides
-nutrient rich and highly productive
explain intertidal zone
-an intertidal zone is periodically submerged and exposed by the tides
-organisms in this area are challenged by variations in temperature, salinity, and waves
-many animals of rocky intertidal environments have adaptations to attach to the hard substrate
explain oceanic pelagic zone
-the oceanic pelagic biome is a vast realm of open blue water, constantly mixed by wind driven currents,
-covers 70% of earths surface
-phytoplankton and zooplankton are the dominant species, also found are free swimming animals
explain coral reefs
-formed from the calcium carbonate skeletons of corals
-corals require a solid substrate for attachment
-unicellular algae live within the tissues of the corals and form mutualistic relationships that provide the corals with organic molecules
explain the marine benthic zone
-the benthic zone is the seafloor
-organisms in the very deep benthic, or abyssal zone, are adapted to continuous cold and extremely high water pressure
-unique organisms are associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents of volcanic origin on mid-oceanic ridges: here the autotrophs are chemoautrophic prokaryotes
the relationship between species in a community (ie. competition, preditation, herbivory, symbiosis)
relationships in a species
species compete for a resource in short supply
local elimination of a competing species (2 species competing can not co-exist)
species' use of biotic and abiotic resources
When can ecologically similar species co-exist in a community?
when there are one or more significant differences in their niches
differentiation of ecological niches, enabling similar species to co-exist in a community
As a result of competition, a species fundamental niche may differ from its...
a tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations of 2 species than in allopatric populations of the same 2 species
most abundant or highest biomass
total mass of all individual species in a population (no H2O)
introduced to a new environment by humans, lack predators/disease
exert strong control on a community by their ecological niche, not necessarily abundant in a community
cause physical changes in the environment that affect community structure, some foundation species act as facilitators that have positive effects in the survival and reproduction of some other species in the community
the sequence of community and ecosystem changes after a disturbance
occurs when no soil exists when succession begins
begins in an area where soil remains after a disturbance
what do energy and matter do within an ecosystem?
energy flows through and matter cycles within
What does GPP stand for?
gross primary production. Total primary production in an ecosystem.
What does NPP stand for?
Net primary production. It is GPP minus energy used by primary producers for respiration. Only NPP is available to consumers.
How much of the biospheres water is from oceans?
How much of the biospheres water is from glaciers?
how much of the biosphere's water if from lakes, rivers, and ground water?
What processes move water?
evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and movement through surface and ground water
CO2 is taken up and released through...
photosynthesis, respiration, volcanoes, burning of fossil fuels
How much of the atmosphere is nitrogen?
What stages does nitrogen go through to become NH4 or NO3?
-organic nitrogen is decomposed to NH4+ by ammonification, and NH4+ is decomposed to NO3- by nitrification
denitrification converts NO3- back to N2
What is the most important inorganic form of phosphorus?