Ecology and the biosphere

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karinama
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24059
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Ecology and the biosphere
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2010-06-20 14:19:29
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bio
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chpt. 1-4 ecology and the biosphere bio 20
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  1. Ecology
    the scientific study of the interactions between organisms and the environment, interaction determine the distribution and abundance of organisms
  2. Organismal ecology
    studies how an organism's structure, physiology and (for animals) behaviors meet environmental challenges
  3. Population
    is a group of individuals of the same species living in an area
  4. community
    is a group of populations of different species in an area
  5. community ecology
    deals with the whole array of interacting species in an area
  6. ecosystem
    is a community of organisms in an area and the physical factors with which they interact
  7. ecosystem ecology
    emphasizes energy flow and chemical cycling amongst the various biotic (living) and abiotic (nonliving) components
  8. landscape
    is a mosaic of connected ecosystems
  9. landscape ecology
    deals with arrays of ecosystems and how that are arranged in a geographic region
  10. Biosphere
    the global ecosystem, the sum of all the planet's ecosystems
  11. global ecology
    examines the influence of energy and materials on organisms across the biosphere
  12. dispersal
    is the movement of individuals away from centers of high population density or from their area or origin, contributes to global distribution of organisms
  13. species translants
    include organisms that are intentionally or accidently relocated from their original distribution, they can disrupt the communities or ecosystems which they have been introduced
  14. at what temperature do cells rupture?
    at what temperature do proteins denature?
    • 0oC
    • 75oC
  15. how do mammals and birds regulate their internal temperature
    by expending energy (shivering)
  16. biomes
    are the major ecological associations that occupy the broad geographic regions if land or water, varying combinations of biotic and abiotic factors determine the nature of biomes
  17. when is water most dense?
    @ 4oC
  18. thermocline
    in oceans and most lakes this temperature boundary separates the warm upper layer and cold deeper water
  19. turnover
    • -many lakes undergo a semiannual mixing of their waters
    • -mixes oxygenated water from the surface with nutrient rich water from the bottom
  20. In lakes the oligorthrophic zone...
    is nutrient poor and oxygen rich
  21. in lakes the eutophic zone is
    nutrient rich and depleted of oxygen if ice covered in winter
  22. in lakes the liltoral zone...
    is shallow and well-lighted and has lots of rooted and floating aquatic plants
  23. wetlands
    habitat with water some of the time and water saturated soil plants
  24. what is the most prominent physical characteristic of streams and rivers?
    current
  25. Explain estuaries
    • -estuaries are the transition area between river and sea
    • -salinity varies with the rise and fall of the tides
    • -nutrient rich and highly productive
  26. explain intertidal zone
    • -an intertidal zone is periodically submerged and exposed by the tides
    • -organisms in this area are challenged by variations in temperature, salinity, and waves
    • -many animals of rocky intertidal environments have adaptations to attach to the hard substrate
  27. explain oceanic pelagic zone
    • -the oceanic pelagic biome is a vast realm of open blue water, constantly mixed by wind driven currents,
    • -covers 70% of earths surface
    • -phytoplankton and zooplankton are the dominant species, also found are free swimming animals
  28. explain coral reefs
    • -formed from the calcium carbonate skeletons of corals
    • -corals require a solid substrate for attachment
    • -unicellular algae live within the tissues of the corals and form mutualistic relationships that provide the corals with organic molecules
  29. explain the marine benthic zone
    • -the benthic zone is the seafloor
    • -organisms in the very deep benthic, or abyssal zone, are adapted to continuous cold and extremely high water pressure
    • -unique organisms are associated with deep-sea hydrothermal vents of volcanic origin on mid-oceanic ridges: here the autotrophs are chemoautrophic prokaryotes
  30. Interspecific
    the relationship between species in a community (ie. competition, preditation, herbivory, symbiosis)
  31. Intraspecific
    relationships in a species
  32. Interspecific competition
    species compete for a resource in short supply
  33. competitive exclusion
    local elimination of a competing species (2 species competing can not co-exist)
  34. Ecological niche
    species' use of biotic and abiotic resources
  35. When can ecologically similar species co-exist in a community?
    when there are one or more significant differences in their niches
  36. resource partitioning
    differentiation of ecological niches, enabling similar species to co-exist in a community
  37. As a result of competition, a species fundamental niche may differ from its...
    realized niche
  38. Character displacement
    a tendency for characteristics to be more divergent in sympatric populations of 2 species than in allopatric populations of the same 2 species
  39. Dominant species
    most abundant or highest biomass
  40. biomass
    total mass of all individual species in a population (no H2O)
  41. Invasive species
    introduced to a new environment by humans, lack predators/disease
  42. Keystone species
    exert strong control on a community by their ecological niche, not necessarily abundant in a community
  43. foundation species
    cause physical changes in the environment that affect community structure, some foundation species act as facilitators that have positive effects in the survival and reproduction of some other species in the community
  44. ecological succession
    the sequence of community and ecosystem changes after a disturbance
  45. primary succession
    occurs when no soil exists when succession begins
  46. secondary succession
    begins in an area where soil remains after a disturbance
  47. what do energy and matter do within an ecosystem?
    energy flows through and matter cycles within
  48. What does GPP stand for?
    gross primary production. Total primary production in an ecosystem.
  49. What does NPP stand for?
    Net primary production. It is GPP minus energy used by primary producers for respiration. Only NPP is available to consumers.
  50. How much of the biospheres water is from oceans?
    97%
  51. How much of the biospheres water is from glaciers?
    2%
  52. how much of the biosphere's water if from lakes, rivers, and ground water?
    1%
  53. What processes move water?
    evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, and movement through surface and ground water
  54. CO2 is taken up and released through...
    photosynthesis, respiration, volcanoes, burning of fossil fuels
  55. How much of the atmosphere is nitrogen?
    78%
  56. What stages does nitrogen go through to become NH4 or NO3?
    • NH3=>NH4=>NO2=>NO3
    • -organic nitrogen is decomposed to NH4+ by ammonification, and NH4+ is decomposed to NO3- by nitrification
    • -denitrification converts NO3- back to N2
  57. What is the most important inorganic form of phosphorus?
    Phosphate (PO43-)

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