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- made out of protein structures called microtubles.
- located outside of cell, and aids in movement
- selective permeability: chooses what molecules comes in and out of cell
- holds all the organelles within the cell
- nutrients and water
- Function: environment for all organelles. region between the nucleus and cell membrane
ER (endoplasmic reticulum)
- two types: Rough & Smooth
- Function: membranous organelle that builds the membranes for the cell
- within the cytoplasm
- Function: supports the cytoskeleton
- Function: factory warehouse.
- detoxes cells
- carb metabolism
- produces steroids
- makes lipids
- Function: synthesizes and packages proteins and transports them into Golgi appt. by vesicles.
- contains ribosomes
- floats freely in cytoplasm or bound by nuclear envelope.
- Function: makes amino acids into polypeptides
- moves the peptides into the Golgi apparatus
- Function: warehouse for packaging/storing ER products (proteins) to and around the cell.
- Secretes proteins
Function: ships Golgi body's products.
- made by golgi body
- Function: recycling center/ the stomach of the cell.
- contains hydrolytic enzymes to digest waste.
- Function: the information center of the cell
- contains DNA
- Within the nucleolus
- contains DNA
- Function: makes rRNA
- center of nucleus
sites of cellular respiration: the metabolic process that produces ATP by extracting energy from carbs, fats with the help of oxygen
- oxidative organelle that is not part of membrane system. proteins come form cytosol and ER.
- Function: detoxifies
- can reproduce independently - possible endosymbiont
Function: captures light energy for photosynthesis
- has membrane bound organelles
- DNA located in nucleus
- consists: Plant, animal, fungi, protists
- nonmembrane bound organelles
- DNA in non membrane region called nucleolus
- consists: bacteria, archae
dense region found only in prokaryotic cells
- central region in nucleus
- function: makes ribosomes rRNA for DNA instructions
What are the two forms of DNA
- Chromatin: unwound DNA (not visible). During non dividing form
- Chromosomes: condensed DNA. during cell division. held together by protein
What are the types of ribosomes and their location, function?
- free ribosomes: within the cytosol. catalyzes sugar breakdown
- bound ribosomes: within the ER or nucl. envelope. Secretes proteins.
Relationship of Surface area to Volume
as cell increases in surface area, the volume stays the same
What do Animal Cells have the Plant Cells don't
- Centrosomes with centrioles
what do Plant Cells have that Animal Cells don't?
- central vacuole
- cell wall
- cellulose in cell wall
- the 2x membrane in a Eu. cell
- Function: encloses the nucleus separating it from cytoplasm
What gives nucleus its structure?
- Nuclear lamina: netlike array of protein filaments lining the interior of nucl. envelope
- Nuclear matrix: frame of protein fibers extending within interior of nuclear envelope
collection of membranes inside and around Eu. cell
What does the Endomembrane system include?
- nuclear envelope
- Golgi appts.
- Plasma membrane
secretory proteins that have carbohydrates covalently bonded to them
How can the ER renew itself?
Cisternal maturation: the cisternae of the golgi matures from the cis --> trans face
- "receiving" side of Golgi appt.
- Transport vesicles move material from ER to Golgi appts.
- "shipping" side of Golgi appts.
- Forms vesicles when they pinch off and travel to other sites
process were a cell engulfs another cell
when lysosomes use their enzymes to recycle the cell's own organic material
What if the lysosome enzymes leaked?
hydrolytic enzyme in lysosome is acidic (pH 4.8) and is neutralized when it enters the cytoplasm. But excessive leakage can destroy the cell by self digestion
What are the products of Golgi appts?
How does the Golgi appts know where to send its products to the specific sites?
- molecular tagging
- tags can be functional groups
What produces lysosomes?
If people cannot produce hydrolytic enzymes?
- Tay Sachs disease: a disease where a lipid digesting enzyme is missing/inactive
- causes lysosomes to fill up with indigestible substance
formed by phagocytosis: pinches off of the plasma membrane and encloses the food
- cavity in cytoplasm of some protists
- collects water and discharges it from the cell. Aids in growth
- Largest organelle in plant cell
- Function: storage, waste breakdown, hydrolysis of macromolecules
specialized peroxisomes that are found in fat-storage tissues of plant seeds
- network of fibers from the cytoplasm
- Function: organizes and supports cell activities
- Composed of: microtubles, microfilaments, intermediate filaments
- Hollow protein tubes
- Function: maintains cell shape, motility, chromosome movement, cell division, organelle movement
- Thickest of the three types
- Holds microtubules "microtubule-organizing center"
- A region near the nuclueas
- within the centrosome
- composed of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring
water pressure within the vacuole as it pushes against the cell wall
early EU. cell engulfs a prokaryotic cell and they coexisted.
Evidence of endosymbiont theory for mitochondria
- double membrane
- unique DNA (circular)
- grows independently
the layers of membrane within a membranous organelle