Cell organelles

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  1. flagella, cilia
    • made out of protein structures called microtubles.
    • located outside of cell, and aids in movement
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  2. cell membrane
    • selective permeability: chooses what molecules comes in and out of cell
    • holds all the organelles within the cell
  3. cytoplasm
    • nutrients and water
    • Function: environment for all organelles. region between the nucleus and cell membrane
  4. ER (endoplasmic reticulum)
    • two types: Rough & Smooth
    • Function: membranous organelle that builds the membranes for the cell
  5. centrosomes
    • within the cytoplasm
    • Function: supports the cytoskeleton
  6. Smooth ER
    • Function: factory warehouse.
    • detoxes cells
    • carb metabolism
    • produces steroids
    • makes lipids
  7. rough ER
    • Function: synthesizes and packages proteins and transports them into Golgi appt. by vesicles.
    • contains ribosomes
  8. Ribosomes
    • floats freely in cytoplasm or bound by nuclear envelope.
    • Function: makes amino acids into polypeptides
    • moves the peptides into the Golgi apparatus
  9. Golgi apparatus
    • Function: warehouse for packaging/storing ER products (proteins) to and around the cell.
    • Secretes proteins
  10. Vesicles
    Function: ships Golgi body's products.
  11. Lysosomes
    • made by golgi body
    • Function: recycling center/ the stomach of the cell.
    • contains hydrolytic enzymes to digest waste.
  12. nucleus
    • Function: the information center of the cell
    • contains DNA
  13. Chromatin
    • Within the nucleolus
    • contains DNA
  14. Nucleolus
    • Function: makes rRNA
    • center of nucleus
  15. Motochondria
    sites of cellular respiration: the metabolic process that produces ATP by extracting energy from carbs, fats with the help of oxygen
  16. peroxisomes
    • oxidative organelle that is not part of membrane system. proteins come form cytosol and ER.
    • Function: detoxifies
    • can reproduce independently - possible endosymbiont
  17. Chloroplast
    Function: captures light energy for photosynthesis
  18. Eukaryotic cell
    • has membrane bound organelles
    • DNA located in nucleus
    • consists: Plant, animal, fungi, protists
  19. Prokaryotic
    • nonmembrane bound organelles
    • DNA in non membrane region called nucleolus
    • consists: bacteria, archae
  20. nuceloid
    dense region found only in prokaryotic cells
  21. nucleolus
    • central region in nucleus
    • function: makes ribosomes rRNA for DNA instructions
  22. What are the two forms of DNA
    • Chromatin: unwound DNA (not visible). During non dividing form
    • Chromosomes: condensed DNA. during cell division. held together by protein
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  23. What are the types of ribosomes and their location, function?
    • free ribosomes: within the cytosol. catalyzes sugar breakdown
    • bound ribosomes: within the ER or nucl. envelope. Secretes proteins.
  24. Relationship of Surface area to Volume
    as cell increases in surface area, the volume stays the same
  25. What do Animal Cells have the Plant Cells don't
    • Lysosomes
    • Centrosomes with centrioles
    • Flagella
  26. what do Plant Cells have that Animal Cells don't?
    • chloroplasts
    • central vacuole
    • cell wall
    • cellulose in cell wall
  27. Nuclear envelope
    • the 2x membrane in a Eu. cell
    • Function: encloses the nucleus separating it from cytoplasm
  28. What gives nucleus its structure?
    • Nuclear lamina: netlike array of protein filaments lining the interior of nucl. envelope
    • Nuclear matrix: frame of protein fibers extending within interior of nuclear envelope
  29. Endomembrane System
    collection of membranes inside and around Eu. cell
  30. What does the Endomembrane system include?
    • nuclear envelope
    • ER
    • Golgi appts.
    • Lysosomes
    • Vesicles
    • Vacuoles
    • Plasma membrane
  31. Glycoprotein
    secretory proteins that have carbohydrates covalently bonded to them
  32. How can the ER renew itself?
    Cisternal maturation: the cisternae of the golgi matures from the cis --> trans face
  33. Cis face
    • "receiving" side of Golgi appt.
    • Transport vesicles move material from ER to Golgi appts.
  34. Trans face
    • "shipping" side of Golgi appts.
    • Forms vesicles when they pinch off and travel to other sites
  35. Phogosytosis
    process were a cell engulfs another cell
  36. Autophagy
    when lysosomes use their enzymes to recycle the cell's own organic material
  37. What if the lysosome enzymes leaked?
    hydrolytic enzyme in lysosome is acidic (pH 4.8) and is neutralized when it enters the cytoplasm. But excessive leakage can destroy the cell by self digestion
  38. What are the products of Golgi appts?
    • glycoproteins
    • phosolipids
  39. How does the Golgi appts know where to send its products to the specific sites?
    • molecular tagging
    • tags can be functional groups
  40. What produces lysosomes?
    rough ER
  41. If people cannot produce hydrolytic enzymes?
    • Tay Sachs disease: a disease where a lipid digesting enzyme is missing/inactive
    • causes lysosomes to fill up with indigestible substance
  42. Food vacuoles
    formed by phagocytosis: pinches off of the plasma membrane and encloses the food
  43. Contractile vacuole
    • cavity in cytoplasm of some protists 
    • collects water and discharges it from the cell. Aids in growth
  44. Central Vacoule
    • Largest organelle in plant cell
    • Function: storage, waste breakdown, hydrolysis of macromolecules
  45. Glyoxysomes
    specialized peroxisomes that are found in fat-storage tissues of plant seeds
  46. Cytoskeleton
    • network of fibers from the cytoplasm
    • Function: organizes and supports cell activities
    • Composed of: microtubles, microfilaments, intermediate filaments
  47. Microtubles
    • Hollow protein tubes
    • Function: maintains cell shape, motility, chromosome movement, cell division, organelle movement
    • Thickest of the three types
  48. Centrosome
    • Holds microtubules "microtubule-organizing center"
    • A region near the nuclueas
  49. Centrioles
    • within the centrosome
    • composed of 9 sets of triplet microtubules arranged in a ring
  50. Turgor Pressure
    water pressure within the vacuole as it pushes against the cell wall
  51. Endosymbiont Theory
    early EU. cell engulfs a prokaryotic cell and they coexisted.
  52. Evidence of endosymbiont theory for mitochondria
    • double membrane
    • unique DNA (circular)
    • grows independently
  53. Cristae
    the layers of membrane within a membranous organelle
Card Set:
Cell organelles
2013-10-14 23:20:52
Bio C6

Shostrom 1-6
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