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Akhenaton (Lecture 4)
- Reigned from 1411-1375 BCE
- Imposed monotheism on Egypt
- Loved the sun god Anton
- Banned all other gods
- Amunhotep IV even changed his name to Akhenaton — ”one who serves Aton”.
Alexander (lecture 8)
- conquests brought many ‘eastern’ ideas further west
- Son of Phillip II
- (r. 336-323 BCE
- Crowned Pharaoh, the incarnate son of Amon-Ra
- was Shahanshah, the absolute ruler over a huge domain
- Conquered the roman empire
The Assyrian Empire (Lecture 3)
- Defeated Egypt
- was built around a warrior aristocracy who lived and died by the sword
- Mountains Of Skulls
The Epic of Gilagmesh (Lecture 2)
- oldest known writing of its kind in the world.
- recounts the tale of Gilgamesh, a semi-divine king of ancient Sumer.
- connexion to the Flood narrative
- went on adventures
The Augustan Principate (Lecture 11)
- Augustus (great / holy one);
- The Principate is the term for Augustus's (Octavian) rule, & lasted until 14 CE
- Octavian was a master politician, and his propaganda gained him control over Rome.
- founded the Roman Empire.
Pax Romana (lecture 11)
- Roman Peace-an extended period of prosperity and growth...
- The 'Golden Age' of the Augustan Principate instilled a sense of Roman values in the conquered territories.
Babylonian Captivity (lecture 9)
- a period of 50 years with no Temple cult and no sacrifice to YHVH
- priesthood was confused & the line of David dethroned.
- The Deuteronomistic history was composed and the prophets justified the destruction of their home as a lesson from God...
Code of Hammurabi (Lecture 3)
- a code of morality and justice that sought strict order
- Bought about by Hammurabi
- There were 282 decrees, covering everything from crimes against the state to civil & business law
- There was no concept of imprisonment or forced labour; only retributional punishments.
Corpus Iuris Civilis (Lecture 12)
The codified body of law under Justianian
- Parts of the "Justinian Code" include
- Code — laws and edicts from the time of Augustus on;
Digest — the record of jurisprudence
Institutes — a manual on legal principles;
Novels — new laws enacted by and after Justinian.
Latifundia & the Servile Wars (Lecture 10)
large landed estate or ranch in ancient Rome typically worked by slaves.
Cuneiform (Lecture 3) & Hieroglyphics (Lecture 4)
- scribes pressed their characters into wet clay.
- This was then hardened into a very durable medium
- hieroglyphics = 'sacred carvings'
- Used by Egyptians
Göbekli Tepe (Lecture 2)
- first permanent structures of religious site
- oldest was found in Turkey
- built by a nomadic hunter-gatherer society around 11,000 years ago
Hellenistic Philosophy (Lecture 8)
- emphasized practical aspects of life.
- Hellenistic thought mostly fit into four major schools:
Cynicism: founded by Diogenes: taught asceticism — divorce from material needs and desires.
Epicureanism: founded by Epicurus; to attain the highest values in life, you had to avoid disturbances.
Stoicism: founded by Zeno of Cyprus; believed one should seek logical constraints on our behaviour.
Neoplatonism: saw the world as a series of progressive emanations from an ultimate source,
The Polis (Lecture 7)
- the city-states of ancient Greece (made up of the city plus the surrounding hinterland)
- To be in another polis was to be a foreigner, deprived of rights.
Zoroastrianism (Lecture 6) / Mazdaism (Lecture 6)
- Zoroastrianism a dualistic faith.
- Two forces battling against each other good v evil
- Mazda- The god of zorastrianism
Socrates (Lecture 8)
- was a peripatetic philosopher — he walked around asking questions of his students.
- answered questions with another question
- an ethical philosopher, concerned to find the right way to live.
Plato (Lecture 8)
- best and most famous of Socrates's students
- His notion of ‘ideal forms’ was a major influence on the theology of the monotheistic religions
Aristotle (Lecture 8)
- most famous student of Plato
- was a realist & materialist, & took a naturalist view of the world
- He sought balance and harmony in life
ruled from 1312 to 1337, at the height of the Empire of Mali.
Early Christian Diversity
Early principles not agreed on
Human Evolution (Lecture 1)
- Our DNA differs only 1.6 per cent from theirs.
- We branched off from their tree a while ago
The Five Good Emperors (Lecture 11)
- Nerva-when he took power, he looked for a successor from the beginning of his reign
- He then groomed & nurtured his choice, creating the concept of adoptive rule.
Trajan- launched provincial military campaigns and Rome expanded to its greatest political & geographic extent
Hadrian-a great patron of the arts, active in extending Roman culture, building theatres, etc
Antonius Pius-rule is often considered the height of prosperity and peace.
Marcus Aurelius- presided over the beginning of the disintegration of the empire
Harappan/Indus Civilization (Lecture 6)
- earliest civilization to emerge in South Asia grew up along the Indus River.
- literate, as well as scientifically advanced.
- Harappan means first site unearthed
The Neolithic Age (Lecture 2)
- 7,000 BCE to ~ 3,500 BCE
- the 'New Stone Age', was first named for tool refinements.
- Domestication & cultivation are two of the most significant human milestones in this period.
Cyrus II (Lecture 6)
- (r. 559-530 BCE)
- brought together the kingdoms of the Medes and Persians
- founded the Achaemenid Empire
- His conquest of Babylon was justified by claiming divine sanction:
- Cyrus Cylinder, one of the most effective bits of political propaganda ever devised.
Darius I (Lecture 6)
- (r. 522-486 BCE)
- valiant Darius slew this usurper and protected the throne.
- set in place many elements of the Persian system.
- This included the Royal Road and the world's first postal system.
- divided the massive empire into provinces called Satrapies
A promise made between God and man.
Homosociality (Lecture 7)
A term from Greek culture which means that the men hung out with men and woman hung out with men
Paterfamilias (Lecture 11)
- male head of the household
- had absolute power
- one of the first peoples to make effective use of iron in war.
- Hittite edicts emphasized restitution
- they preferred diplomacy to outright force, Diplomacyc seeking formal alliances & negotiated surrender