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- Removed from concrete reality.
- Symbols are abstract because they inferences and generalizations derived from a total reality (101)
- Subject to more than one interpretation.
- Symbols are ambiguous because their meanings vary from person to person and context to context (100)
- Random; not determined by necessity.
- symbols are arbitrary because there is no particular reason for any one symbol to stand for a certain referent (98)
Communication rules that define what communication means by specifying how certain communicative acts are to be counted (103)
The ability to understand another person's perspective, beliefs, thoughts, or feelings (112)
Cognitive awareness of experiences and ideas that are not part of the concrete, present situation (111)
A technique of noting that statements reflect specific times and circumstances and may not apply to other times or circumstances (117)
An Extreme form of evaluative language that relies on words that strongly slant perceptions and hence meaning (108)
Defining the beginning and ending of interaction or interaction episodes (104)
Communication rules that regulate interaction by specifying when, how, where, and with whom to talk about certain things (103)
- An arbitrary, ambiguous, and abstract representation of a phenomenon.
- Symbols are the basis of language, much nonverbal behavior, and human thought (98)
Responding to people as if one aspect of them were the sum total of who they are