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The branch of botany that deals with the naming of plants.
who was the first to use the naming system the "binomial system"
Binomial system specifies what?
That a plant name has two parts.
First part of a binomial name is called the...
Second part of a binomial name is called...
- Specific epithet.
- the descriptive adjective of the plant
Plants that have mutatied or bred from existing species have what third name aded to there binomial name?
- Cultivar or variety
- variety is a mutation or differs significantly from its parent species.
- Cultivatar is a man-made or human-maintained variety.
what is the set of rules to naming plants called?
International code of botanic Nomenclature
a Monocot or Monocotyledonae is...
- 22% of all seed-bearing plants
- non woody plants with a short stem and overlapping leaves arranged in a whorl.
A Dicot or Dicotyledonae is...
- grow to a large size
- have a branching vien pattern
- flower petals have multiples of 4 or 5.
- most trees or shrubs are dicots fruits/veggies.
what parts make up a leaf and what is its primary function?
- blade and petiole(leaf stem)
- angle formed between petiole and supporting stem is the leaf axil(buds are found in the axil)
- primary function is photosynesis
the vegetative parts of a plant are..
- the leafs edge it can be
- entire(meaning smooth)
- barbed and spined(protection from predators)
Describe Veins in relation to monocots and dicots
- Dicots have a central vein (midvien)
- Monocots have parallel viens running length of leaf
- tip of the leaf can be
part of the blade that attaches to the petiole or directly to the stem.
leaf covering and what is the wax layer and hairs called?
- hair,scales,or film found on a leaf.
- wax layer= cuticle(prevents water loss from leaf surface)
- hairs=trichomes(discourages animals,extra insulation against water loss)
- minute opening and the cells that surround it
- found on underside of leaf
- central holes(stoma)flanked by guard cells that open or closed based on environmental conditions
regulates flow of water vapor and gases in and out of the leaves,when holes close no photosynesis
leaflike appendages found at the base of the petiole.Like molars not all plants have them (prehistoric protection of the leaf bud)
what are modified leaves?
- twining tendrils
- bracts(leaves of a pointsetta)
stems do what
- grow in height and width
- transports water/other substances
- site of leaf and flower attachment
- stems that grow underground have scales(leaves,onion layer)
- M stems are also above ground shortened to for rosette pattern with leaves ex african violets
an underground stem thickened to serve as a storage site
arrangement of leaves on a stem?
- important used to identify plants
a node is?
the site at which a leaf is or was once attached.
An internode is?
Section of stem between nodes.
network of pathways that move carbohydrates, minerals, water, and other substances within the plants
water and nutrients move up through xylem from roots
manufactured carbohydrates (plant food) move down through the phloem to roots and where needed
composed of individual leaflets has one bud at leaf base
Dicots with xylem and Pholem?
- Xylem and Phloem arranges in concentric rings
- older woody dicots develop a secondary xylem&Phloem layer
- phloem outside xylem layer in center ring
- non woody dicots vascular bundles arranged in a ring in the stem
key differnces in gynosperm and angiosperm?
Monocots with xylem and Phloem?
- together in vascular bundles
- extend also through organs of plant
- creates new phloem/xylem cells to maintain or increase transporting abilities of the vascular system
- thin layer of dividing cells found inbetween xylem and phloem
- Found in woody stems produces bark cells
- found directly beneath bark surface
- Can be either vegetative,flower,or mixed bud
- arranged in either axillary(located at leaf axils or terminal position(located at the tip of stem)
- adventitious buds-found veins of leaf or leaf blade junction
site of new leaf growth,contains leaf/ves or an embryonic shoot
- includes rudiments of one or more flowers
- usually larger than vegetative bud
contains the potential to produce a flower or shoot
- anchor plant
- transport/absorb water/nutrients for use in photosynesis(takes place in younger roots)
- carbohydrates store in older roots
point at which roots attach to aboveground portions of the plant
- Taproot-primary root doesn't branch out thick (ex citrus,carrot,dandelions)
- Fibrous root system-grow from base of dead primary root(after seed germination)
- lateral side roots grow/germinate
- fleshy root-thick like taproot but branch out
- grow of non-root parts of plant
- (ex orchids,ivy,african violets- grown from cuttings roots developed from stem)
parts of a root tip
- root cap-made of layer cells that prevent damage to the rest of the root as pushed through soil.
- meristem-produces cells that elongate the root
- zone of maturation and absorbtion- absorbs h2O/nutrients enter form fragile root hairs(live few weeks,replaced)
modified roots are..
store large quantities of carbohydrates (ex sweet potato)