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perceived height of sound (or tension) of sound
- difference in pitch between two sounds, measured by the scale (chromatic or diatonic) to which the pitch belongs
- all intervals have size
Name the 2 types of interval
melodic and simultaneity
- interval from a sound to the subsequent sound in the same voice
- have direction
interval from a lower pitch to a higher pitch of 2 concurrent sounds
what is the difference between melodic intervals and harmonic?
Melodic intervals have direction
Name the 3 three most important intervals
- whole tone
pitch class (note)
family of octave-related pitches
2 advantages for using limited # of pitches
- easy to recognize change of pitch
- helps us perceive repetition and grouping
set of pitch classes that divide the octave into a series of smaller intervals
How are scales distinguished?
by the way the scales divide the octave
the an interval in which the frequency of the higher note is twice that of the lower.
- rate of vibration --> pitch
Under what 2 conditions would pitches be considered to be octave-equivalent?
- related by octave (same pitch class)
- same scale position
whole tone scale
- T T T T T T
- scale of 6 equal frequency ratios/scale made entirely of whole tones
- S S S S S S S S S S S S
- scale of 12 equal frequency ratios, scale of semitones
- T S T S T S T S or S T S T S T S T
- scale of alternating whole tones and semitones
- T T S T T T S
- scale of 5 tones and 2 semitones where the semitones are as far apart as possible
How do scales support continuity?
small intervals promote continuity
- a scale in which at least of the steps is greater than a tone
- ex. harmonic minor
Name 2 things necessary to precisely name a pitch.
- pitch class and octave
- ex. E5
Name 4 ways to name pitch classes.
- letter names, solfège fixed and moveable do (diatonic)
- numbers (chromatic)
symbols indicating pitch outside of the diatonic scale
- which octave a given pitch is located within the total pitch space
- ex. C4
where a given pitch is located (ie. high, medium, low) within the pitch space of the instrument that plays it.
What is the "correct" way to name a pitch?
- The one that shows most clearly the way pitches are organized
- for diatonic: only one pitch class per octave
a sound produced by an element vibrating in one dimension (ex. string)
frequencies in a harmonic sound
The harmonic series is composed of: (2)
- fundamental frequency
the lowest frequency, usually corresponding to the perceived pitch (bass/base note from which the other frequencies are based on)
the other frequencies which are, ideally, whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency - they contribute to the timbre of the sound.
List the overtone series in terms of intervals.
P8. P5, P4, M3, m3, m3, M2, M2, M2, ...
Interval ratio of unison, fifth, major third, octave, fourth, minor third and major second.
1:1, 3:2, 5:4, 2:1, 4:3, 6:5, 9:8
List the overtone series in terms of frequency.
100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800
- disjunct motion
- a change from one pitch to another that is not stepwise motion
a distinctive series of pitches that are repeated
- distinctive series of intervals (same interval content) but not necessarily the same pitch content
- different pitch, different duration, but same interval
same series of interval but starting on a different note
- same melodic interval series but reversed direction
- sometimes interval quality changed to remain diatonic (same key)
diatonic interval motive
interval motive with same numeric values but different qualities
use of scales makes possible: (3)
- measuring size of intervals
- distinctions between steps and leaps
- diatonic transposition (varied repetition --> interest)
variational motives provides...
- stress heard at onset of a pitch to which there is a leap, stronger when upwards
- the larger the leap, the stronger
- draws attention to the time point
- regular pitch changes create pulse
immediate, transposed repetition within a single voice
list of every mode.
- Major (ionian) - C
- dorian - D
- phrygian - E
- lydian - F
- mixolydian - G
- minor (aeolian) - A
- locrian - B
how to determine the mode of a diatonic melody (4)
- determine the tonic
- determine remaining notes
- assemble a scale
- match interval patterns to known patterns