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pitch
perceived height of sound (or tension) of sound

interval
 difference in pitch between two sounds, measured by the scale (chromatic or diatonic) to which the pitch belongs
 all intervals have size

Name the 2 types of interval
melodic and simultaneity

melodic interval
 interval from a sound to the subsequent sound in the same voice
 have direction

simultaneity(harmonic) interval
interval from a lower pitch to a higher pitch of 2 concurrent sounds

what is the difference between melodic intervals and harmonic?
Melodic intervals have direction

Name the 3 three most important intervals
 unison/octave
 whole tone
 semitone

pitch class (note)
family of octaverelated pitches

2 advantages for using limited # of pitches
 easy to recognize change of pitch
 helps us perceive repetition and grouping

scale
set of pitch classes that divide the octave into a series of smaller intervals

How are scales distinguished?
by the way the scales divide the octave

octave
the an interval in which the frequency of the higher note is twice that of the lower.

frequency
 rate of vibration > pitch
 Hertz

Under what 2 conditions would pitches be considered to be octaveequivalent?
 related by octave (same pitch class)
 same scale position

whole tone scale
 T T T T T T
 scale of 6 equal frequency ratios/scale made entirely of whole tones

chromatic scale
 S S S S S S S S S S S S
 scale of 12 equal frequency ratios, scale of semitones

octatonic scale
 T S T S T S T S or S T S T S T S T
 scale of alternating whole tones and semitones

diatonic scale
 T T S T T T S
 scale of 5 tones and 2 semitones where the semitones are as far apart as possible

How do scales support continuity?
small intervals promote continuity

gapped scale
 a scale in which at least of the steps is greater than a tone
 ex. harmonic minor

Name 2 things necessary to precisely name a pitch.
 pitch class and octave
 ex. E5

Name 4 ways to name pitch classes.
 letter names, solfège fixed and moveable do (diatonic)
 numbers (chromatic)

accidentals
symbols indicating pitch outside of the diatonic scale

register
 which octave a given pitch is located within the total pitch space
 ex. C4

tessitura
where a given pitch is located (ie. high, medium, low) within the pitch space of the instrument that plays it.

What is the "correct" way to name a pitch?
 The one that shows most clearly the way pitches are organized
 for diatonic: only one pitch class per octave

harmonic sound
a sound produced by an element vibrating in one dimension (ex. string)

harmonic series
frequencies in a harmonic sound

The harmonic series is composed of: (2)
 fundamental frequency
 overtones

fundamental frequency
the lowest frequency, usually corresponding to the perceived pitch (bass/base note from which the other frequencies are based on)

overtones
the other frequencies which are, ideally, whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency  they contribute to the timbre of the sound.

List the overtone series in terms of intervals.
P8. P5, P4, M3, m3, m3, M2, M2, M2, ...

Interval ratio of unison, fifth, major third, octave, fourth, minor third and major second.
1:1, 3:2, 5:4, 2:1, 4:3, 6:5, 9:8

List the overtone series in terms of frequency.
100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800

stepwise motion
conjunct motion

leaps
 disjunct motion
 a change from one pitch to another that is not stepwise motion

pitch motive
a distinctive series of pitches that are repeated

interval motive
 distinctive series of intervals (same interval content) but not necessarily the same pitch content
 different pitch, different duration, but same interval

transposition
same series of interval but starting on a different note

pitch inversion
 same melodic interval series but reversed direction
 sometimes interval quality changed to remain diatonic (same key)

diatonic interval motive
interval motive with same numeric values but different qualities

use of scales makes possible: (3)
 measuring size of intervals
 distinctions between steps and leaps
 diatonic transposition (varied repetition > interest)


variational motives provides...
interest

leap accent
 stress heard at onset of a pitch to which there is a leap, stronger when upwards
 the larger the leap, the stronger

pitch change
 draws attention to the time point
 regular pitch changes create pulse

melodic sequence
immediate, transposed repetition within a single voice


list of every mode.
 Major (ionian)  C
 dorian  D
 phrygian  E
 lydian  F
 mixolydian  G
 minor (aeolian)  A
 locrian  B

how to determine the mode of a diatonic melody (4)
 determine the tonic
 determine remaining notes
 assemble a scale
 match interval patterns to known patterns

