MUSC 100 - Pitch

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MUSC 100 - Pitch
2013-10-14 22:20:12

Music Theory - Pitch terms
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  1. pitch
    perceived height of sound (or tension) of sound
  2. interval
    • difference in pitch between two sounds, measured by the scale (chromatic or diatonic) to which the pitch belongs
    • all intervals have size
  3. Name the 2 types of interval
    melodic and simultaneity
  4. melodic interval
    • interval from a sound to the subsequent sound in the same voice
    • have direction
  5. simultaneity(harmonic) interval
    interval from a lower pitch to a higher pitch of 2 concurrent sounds
  6. what is the difference between melodic intervals and harmonic?
    Melodic intervals have direction
  7. Name the 3 three most important intervals
    • unison/octave
    • whole tone
    • semitone
  8. pitch class (note)
    family of octave-related pitches
  9. 2 advantages for using limited # of pitches
    • easy to recognize change of pitch
    • helps us perceive repetition and grouping
  10. scale
    set of pitch classes that divide the octave into a series of smaller intervals
  11. How are scales distinguished?
    by the way the scales divide the octave
  12. octave
    the an interval in which the frequency of the higher note is twice that of the lower.
  13. frequency
    • rate of vibration --> pitch
    • Hertz
  14. Under what 2 conditions would pitches be considered to be octave-equivalent?
    • related by octave (same pitch class)
    • same scale position
  15. whole tone scale
    • T T T T T T
    • scale of 6 equal frequency ratios/scale made entirely of whole tones
  16. chromatic scale
    • S S S S S S S S S S S S
    • scale of 12 equal frequency ratios, scale of semitones
  17. octatonic scale
    • T S T S T S T S  or  S T S T S T S T
    • scale of alternating whole tones and semitones
  18. diatonic scale
    • T T S T T T S
    • scale of 5 tones and 2 semitones where the semitones are as far apart as possible
  19. How do scales support continuity?
    small intervals promote continuity
  20. gapped scale
    • a scale in which at least of the steps is greater than a tone
    • ex. harmonic minor
  21. Name 2 things necessary to precisely name a pitch.
    • pitch class and octave
    • ex. E5
  22. Name 4 ways to name pitch classes.
    • letter names, solfège fixed and moveable do (diatonic)
    • numbers (chromatic)
  23. accidentals
    symbols indicating pitch outside of the diatonic scale
  24. register
    • which octave a given pitch is located within the total pitch space
    • ex. C4
  25. tessitura
    where a given pitch is located (ie. high, medium, low) within the pitch space of the instrument that plays it.
  26. What is the "correct" way to name a pitch?
    • The one that shows most clearly the way pitches are organized 
    • for diatonic: only one pitch class per octave
  27. harmonic sound
    a sound produced by an element vibrating in one dimension (ex. string)
  28. harmonic series
    frequencies in a harmonic sound
  29. The harmonic series is composed of: (2)
    • fundamental frequency
    • overtones
  30. fundamental frequency
    the lowest frequency, usually corresponding to the perceived pitch (bass/base note from which the other frequencies are based on)
  31. overtones
    the other frequencies which are, ideally, whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency - they contribute to the timbre of the sound.
  32. List the overtone series in terms of intervals.
    P8. P5, P4, M3, m3, m3, M2, M2, M2, ...
  33. Interval ratio of unison, fifth, major third, octave, fourth, minor third and major second.
    1:1, 3:2, 5:4, 2:1, 4:3, 6:5, 9:8
  34. List the overtone series in terms of frequency.
    100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800
  35. stepwise motion
    conjunct motion
  36. leaps
    • disjunct motion
    • a change from one pitch to another that is not stepwise motion
  37. pitch motive
    a distinctive series of pitches that are repeated
  38. interval motive
    • distinctive series of intervals (same interval content) but not necessarily the same pitch content
    • different pitch, different duration, but same interval
  39. transposition
    same series of interval but starting on a different note
  40. pitch inversion
    • same melodic interval series but reversed direction
    • sometimes interval quality changed to remain diatonic (same key)
  41. diatonic interval motive
    interval motive with same numeric values but different qualities
  42. use of scales makes possible: (3)
    • measuring size of intervals
    • distinctions between steps and leaps
    • diatonic transposition (varied repetition --> interest)
  43. motives provide...
  44. variational motives provides...
  45. leap accent
    • stress heard at onset of a pitch to which there is a leap, stronger when upwards
    • the larger the leap, the stronger
  46. pitch change
    • draws attention to the time point
    • regular pitch changes create pulse
  47. melodic sequence
    immediate, transposed repetition within a single voice
  48. mode
    how a scale is used
  49. list of every mode.
    • Major (ionian) - C
    • dorian - D
    • phrygian - E
    • lydian - F
    • mixolydian - G
    • minor (aeolian) - A
    • locrian - B
  50. how to determine the mode of a diatonic melody (4)
    • determine the tonic
    • determine remaining notes
    • assemble a scale
    • match interval patterns to known patterns