MUSC 100 - Pitch
Card Set Information
MUSC 100 - Pitch
Music Theory - Pitch terms
perceived height of sound (or tension) of sound
difference in pitch between two sounds, measured by the scale (chromatic or diatonic) to which the pitch belongs
all intervals have size
Name the 2 types of interval
melodic and simultaneity
interval from a sound to the subsequent sound in the same voice
interval from a lower pitch to a higher pitch of 2 concurrent sounds
what is the difference between melodic intervals and harmonic?
Melodic intervals have direction
Name the 3 three most important intervals
pitch class (note)
family of octave-related pitches
2 advantages for using limited # of pitches
easy to recognize change of pitch
helps us perceive repetition and grouping
set of pitch classes that
divide the octave
into a series of smaller intervals
How are scales distinguished?
by the way the scales divide the octave
the an interval in which the frequency of the higher note is twice that of the lower.
rate of vibration --> pitch
Under what 2 conditions would pitches be considered to be octave-equivalent?
related by octave (same pitch class)
same scale position
whole tone scale
T T T T T T
scale of 6 equal frequency ratios/scale made entirely of whole tones
S S S S S S S S S S S S
scale of 12 equal frequency ratios, scale of semitones
T S T S T S T S or S T S T S T S T
scale of alternating whole tones and semitones
T T S T T T S
scale of 5 tones and 2 semitones where the semitones are as far apart as possible
How do scales support continuity?
small intervals promote continuity
a scale in which at least of the steps is greater than a tone
ex. harmonic minor
Name 2 things necessary to precisely name a pitch.
pitch class and octave
Name 4 ways to name pitch classes.
letter names, solfège fixed and moveable do (diatonic)
symbols indicating pitch outside of the diatonic scale
octave a given pitch is located
within the total pitch space
where a given pitch is located (ie. high, medium, low) within the pitch space of the instrument that plays it.
What is the "correct" way to name a pitch?
The one that shows most clearly the way pitches are organized
: only one pitch class per octave
a sound produced by an element vibrating in one dimension (ex. string)
frequencies in a harmonic sound
The harmonic series is composed of: (2)
the lowest frequency, usually corresponding to the perceived pitch (bass/base note from which the other frequencies are based on)
the other frequencies which are, ideally, whole number multiples of the fundamental frequency - they contribute to the timbre of the sound.
List the overtone series in terms of intervals.
P8. P5, P4, M3, m3, m3, M2, M2, M2, ...
Interval ratio of unison, fifth, major third, octave, fourth, minor third and major second.
1:1, 3:2, 5:4, 2:1, 4:3, 6:5, 9:8
List the overtone series in terms of frequency.
100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 600, 700, 800
a change from one pitch to another that is not stepwise motion
a distinctive series of pitches that are repeated
distinctive series of intervals (same interval content) but not necessarily the same pitch content
different pitch, different duration, but same interval
same series of interval but starting on a different note
same melodic interval series but reversed direction
sometimes interval quality changed to remain diatonic (same key)
diatonic interval motive
interval motive with same numeric values but different qualities
use of scales makes possible: (3)
measuring size of intervals
distinctions between steps and leaps
diatonic transposition (varied repetition --> interest)
variational motives provides...
stress heard at onset of a pitch to which there is a leap, stronger when upwards
the larger the leap, the stronger
draws attention to the time point
regular pitch changes create pulse
immediate, transposed repetition within a single voice
how a scale is used
list of every mode.
Major (ionian) - C
dorian - D
phrygian - E
lydian - F
mixolydian - G
minor (aeolian) - A
locrian - B
how to determine the mode of a diatonic melody (4)
determine the tonic
determine remaining notes
assemble a scale
match interval patterns to known patterns