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What is infectious disease?
is disease caused by the presence and action of microorganisms
deviation from a healthy state
What are the microbe categories that cause disease in humans?
- Parasitic worms (helminths)
What are the two types of infection according to pathogenesis?
Where do they result from?
Infection- signs and symptoms that result from the growth of microbes and their invation into tissue.
Toxinosis- are signs and symptoms are the results of the action of toxins.
What are the two categories of infection types that are based on the tranmissibility of the microbe between humans?
Communicable- (contagious, infectious)
Noncommunicable- disease that is not spread directly from one person to another.
What are the two categories of infection types based on the transmissibility of the microbe from the environment?
Zootonic- disease spread by the spread from animals to humans; disease caused by animal pathogens.
Phytogenic- spread from plants to humans.
What are clinical infecitons?
What are the types of lcinical infections?
- signs and symptoms are clearly evident
- commonly reffered to as a overt, apparent or symptomiatic infection
- Acute: expression of disease is severe and short.
Fulminating: microbe is multiplying at a high level or with great intensity.
Chronic: Disease is persistent and lasts over long periods.
What are the three main categories that are based on the expression and duration of an infectious disease?
What are sub-clinical infections?
What are they also called?
- patient lacks symptoms
- not detected by clinical examination or laboratory tests
What are latent infections?
How long do they remain in the body until they appear?
What does it alternate with?
microbe persists in a dormant state in host tissues for long time.
weeks, months, and years
pathogen cannot be found by culturing. Alternates between an acute and a subclinical state.
latency is the phase in an infection wehre the pathogen remains latent/dormant.
What are the three categories that are based on location in regards to infection types?
- Local- microbes restricted to a limited region or anatomical area.
- Focal- is the spread from one localized are to other localized area (tuberculosis).
- microorganism circulates throuhout the body and infects many different tissues (measles and typhoid).
What are the three catergories of infection types based on sequence of infeciton?
- Primary infection
- secondary infeciton
What is the primary infection?
What does it result in?
What does it leave patients with (regards to their immune system)?
Host is colonized by a single pathogen type.
results in decreased immune surveillance and response
leaves patient immunocompromised.
What is secondary infection?
What is an example?
One host is infected, other pathogens will colonize the host.
- influenza infection: caused by the influenza virus, an orthomyxovirus
- Strep throat: inflammation of the pharynx caused by streptococcus pyogenes.
What is superinfection?
What does it result in?
- infection caused by destruction of the host microbiota.
- results of treating primary infection with broad-spectrum antibiotics.
What is an alternat definition?
when a virally infected cell is infected by another virus
hep b virus and hep d virus
What are the two categories of infection types that are based on the types or species of organisms?
Polymicrobial infection: the simultaneous establishment of infection by several different microbes; also referred to as a mixed infections.
Cross infection: is the co-infeciton of a host where pathogens were transmitted between hosts infected with different organisms.
What are the infection types that are based on the location within the body, body systems or anatomical structures?
std or sti
What are nosocomial infections?
infectious diseases that are acquired and developed in hospitals.
usually refers to infection acquired by patients during hospitalization but can also be applied to infections acquired by medical personnel.
What are opportunistic infections?
What are pyogenic infecitons?
What are pyrogenic infections and what do they result in?
infection resulting from endogenous microbiota
when host immune's system is compromised
or if the microbe mov
es from its normal location to a new location in the body.
infection resulting in pus formation
infection resulting in fever; fever-inducing
- febrile; pyretic (antipyretic)