The Cranial Nerves

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The Cranial Nerves
2013-10-14 22:25:13
SLP cranial nerves

brief overview of cranial nerves
Show Answers:

  1. What are the cranial nerves?
    • I - Olfactory nerve
    • II - Optic nerve
    • III - Oculomotor nerve
    • IV - Trochlear nerve
    • V - Trigeminal nerve
    • VI - Abducens nerve
    • VII - Facial nerve
    • VIII - Vestibulocochlear nerve/Auditory nerve
    • IX - Glossopharyngeal nerve
    • X - Vagus nerve
    • XI - Accessory nerve/Spinal accessory nerve
    • XII - Hypoglossal nerve
  2. Dirty mnemonic for nerves
    Oh, Oh, Oh, Tiny Tits And Furry Vaginas Give Victor A Hardon
  3. mnemonic for function motor/sensory/both
    Some Say Marry Money, But My Brother Says Big Boobs Matter Most
  4. Most cranial nerves arise from the ________, with I and II arising from the __________.
    III and IV arise from the _________, V and XII arise from the ____/______.
    • brainstem
    • diencephalon
    • midbrain
    • pons medulla
  5. Motor fiber cells reside ______
    Sensory fiber cells reside _______
    • in the motor cortex and transmit impulses from brain to tissue outside brain (corticobulbar tract is a collection of UMN axons and controls head/neck)
    • in ganglia outside brain and transmit impulses from sensory organs to brain
  6. Olfactory Nerve (I):
    • smell receptors stimulated
    • action potential initiated in nasal mucosa
    • olfactory bulb gathers info
    • sends to other structures of CNS via olfactory tract

  7. Optic Nerve (II):
    • carries info from retina past optic chiasm 
    • to the optic tract, which reaches the occipital lobe via the 
    • thalamus

    damage is predictable given location of damage
  8. Oculomotor Nerve (III):
    • Motor to eyelid and extrinsic eye muscles
    • sensory from these muscles to brain
    • facilitates pupil dilation and movement of some eye muscles

    Damage can result in ptosis
  9. Trochlear Nerve (IV):
    • Motor to eye muscles (allows up and out movement of the eye)
    • Sensory from these muscles

    Damage can result in diplopia
  10. Trigeminal Nerve (V): 
    Largest of the CNs
    • motor innervates muscles of mastication (Masseter, Digastric)
    • sensory from face, scalp, nose, and mouth (3 divisions)

    • Unilateral damage to LMN: ipsilateral jaw deviation 
    • Unilateral UMN lesion: no significant effect
    • Bilateral UMN lesion: significant limitations in jaw movement
    • Doctor can test for positive jaw jerk
  11. Abducens Nerve (VI):
    • motor to lateral rectus 
    • sensory from this muscle to brain

    Damage: failure of lateral rectus to abduct (can't look to the side)
  12. Facial Nerve (VII):
    To Zanzibar By Motor Car
    (temporal, zygomatic, buccal, mandibular, cervical)

    Motor to all muscles of facial expression, lower face has unilateral innervation, upper face has bilateral innervation

    Sensory from anterior 2/3rds of tongue and proprioceptive fibers from facial muscles
  13. Vestibularcochlear Nerve (VIII)
    • sensory from vestibular apparatus and semicircular canals about equilibrium
    • sensory from organ of corti/cochlea about hearing

    Damage results in hearing impairment or vertigo
  14. Glossopharyngeal Nerve (IX):
    • motor to pharyngeal muscle for swallowing and parasympathetic fibers to salivary glands
    • Sensory from pharynx, tonsils, posterior 1/3rd of tongue

    Damage: swallowing/numbness of ipsilateral pharynx
  15. Vagus Nerve (X):
    • Motor to pharynx, larynx, heart, and other organs
    • sensory from neck, chest, and abdomen 

    Unilateral damage to lower motor lesion: affects larynx, hoarseness, difficulty swallowing
  16. Accessory Nerve (XI):
    • Motor stimulation to sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles via spinal fibers
    • Motor from medulla innervate soft palate, pharynx, and larynx (cranial root) 
    • Sensory from the above mentioned 

    Damage: drooping shoulder, trouble turning head towards lesion