Integumentary System

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Integumentary System
2013-10-14 22:32:43

Medical Terminology
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  1. Integument
  2. Largest organ in body
  3. Integumentary system
    Hair,skin, nails
  4. protects from injury and ultraviolet rays
    integument function
  5. provides sensory information to the brain (pain, temp, prssure)
    integument function
  6. regulates body temp
    integument function
  7. prevents dehydration
    integument function
  8. acts as resevoir for food and water
    integument funcion
  9. synthesizes vitamin D, from sunlight
    integument function
  10. 3 structures of integument
    • epidermis
    • dermis
    • accesory organs
  11. 3 accesory organs
    • glands
    • hair
    • nails
  12. Strata
    several sublayers
  13. 2 most important strata sublayers
    • stratum corneum
    • basal layer
  14. stratum corneum
    • composed of dead flat cells
    • lack blood supply
  15. keratin
    hard protein material
  16. Basal layer
    • only layer composed of living cells
    • contains keratin and melanocytes
  17. melanocytes
    produces a black pigment called melanin
  18. melanin
    • provides protective barrier from damaging sun radiation
    • freckles and moles
  19. albino
    people who cant produce melanin
  20. epidermis
    relativly thin, thickest on palms and soles
  21. Dermis is AKA
  22. dermis is
    the second layer of skin, lies beneath epidermis
  23. dermis is composed of
    living tissue
  24. dermis contains
    • numerous capillaries, lymphatic vessel and nerve endings
    • hair follicles, sebaceous glands (oil), and sudoriferous (sweat) glands
  25. subcutaneous layer is AKA
  26. subcutaneous layer stores
    fat, insulates, cushions, and reglates temperature
  27. subcutaneous layer is composed of
    • loose connective tissue
    • adipose (fat)
    • interlaces with blood vessels
  28. sebaceous glands
  29. sudoriferous glands
  30. sebaceous and sudoriferous glands are considered
    exocrine glands (exiting body through ducts)
  31. sudoriferous main function
    to cool the body, excrete waste and moisten surface
  32. hair color is determined by
    amount of melanin
  33. hair shaft
    visible portion of hair
  34. hair root
    portion embedded in dermis
  35. hair follile
    root together with its coverings
  36. papilla
    • loop of capillaries at bottom of follicle
    • blood supply to hair
  37. nail root
    formed here
  38. nail bed
    layer of epithelium covered by the nail
  39. nail body
    pink portion of nail
  40. lunula
    • growth portion of nail
    • the half moon shape
  41. skin lesions
    areas of tissue that have been altered by injury, wound or infection
  42. localized lesion
    small, knick
  43. systematic lesion
    rash widely spread
  44. lesions are described as
    • primary
    • secondary
  45. 4 ways lesions are described BY
    • appearance
    • color
    • locations
    • and size
  46. primary lesions
    original cause (ex - mosquito bite)
  47. secondary lesions
    changes that take place in primary lesion (ex- mosquito bite got bad and now has hole in it)
  48. first degree burns
    • the least serious
    • injures the top layer (epidermis)
    • (examples- sunburn, exposure to chemicals)
  49. second degree burn
    • deep burns that damage epidermis and part of dermis
    • (exampls- contact with flames,hot liquid or chemicals
  50. second degree burns cause
    fluid filled blistes (vesicles or bullae)
  51. third degree burn
    • destroy epidermis, dermis, and some underlying connective tissue
    • underlying bones muscles and tendons may also be damaged
    • (examples- corrosive chemicals, flames, electricity)
  52. scars form from what burns
    third (skin grafts often required)
  53. formula for estimating burn
    rule of nines (9% or 18%)
  54. neoplasm
    abnormal growths
  55. benign
  56. malignant
  57. metastasis
    malignant cells that have the potential to spread
  58. Oconology grading and staging determines
    prognosis, treatment and invasiveness
  59. grade 1
    tumor cells well differentiated
  60. grade 2
    tumor cells moderatly differentiated
  61. grade 3
    tumor cells poorly differentiated
  62. grade 4
    tumor cells very poorly differentiated
  63. stage 1
    defined locations, no invasion to surrounding tissue
  64. stage 2
    extensive invasion to surrounding tissue
  65. stage 3
    lymph node involvment
  66. stage 4
  67. the smaller the number of stage or grade means
    its less serious
  68. the highter the number of stage or grade means
    the more serious it is
  69. basal cell carcinoma
    • most common type of skin cancer caused by overexposure of sun
    • localized to specific region and don't really spread
  70. squamous cell carcinoma
    an invasiv tumor with potential fr metastisis
  71. 2 types of squamous cell carcinoma
    • insitu(confined)
    • invasive (penetrate)
  72. risk factors of squamous cell carcinoma
    • overexposure to sun
    • radiation
    • presense of pigent lesions
  73. malignant melanoma
    composed of abnormal melanocytes, commonly begin in pigmented mole
  74. most lethal skin cancer
    malignant melanoma