M.T. Chapter 9 - Blood, Lymph, and Immune Systems

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M.T. Chapter 9 - Blood, Lymph, and Immune Systems
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2013-10-15 22:10:10
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Blood Lymph Immune Systems
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Blood, Lymph, and Immune Systems
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  1. protective protein produced by B lymphocytes in response to the presence of a foreign substance called an antigen
    antibody (Ab)
  2. substance, recognized as harmful to the host, that stimulates formation of antibodies in an immunocompetent individual
    antigen
  3. erythrocytes
    red blood cells
  4. leukocytes
    white blood cells
  5. thrombocytes
    platelets
  6. the solid components of blood include
    • red blood cells
    • white blood cells
    • platelets
  7. the liquid portion of blood in which blood cells are suspended
    plasma
  8. blood is __________ tissue
    connective
  9. RBCs live for approximately
    120 days
  10. an organism that harbors a parasite, or a mutual or commensal symbiont, typically providing nourishment and shelter
    host
  11. undifferentiated biological cells, that can differentiate into specialized cells and can divide (through mitosis) to produce more
    stem cell
  12. when fibrinogen and clotting elements are removed from plasma, the resulting fluid is called
    serum
  13. gland
    aden/o
  14. embryonic cell
    blast/o
  15. red
    erythr/o
  16. blood
    hem/o
  17. blood
    hemat/o
  18. white
    leuk/o
  19. lymph glad (node)
    lymphaden/o
  20. characterized by changes in the size, consistency, or number of lymph nodes
    lymphadenopathy
  21. causes a profoundly elevated white blood cell count and a very low red blood cellcount
    leukemia
  22. lymph
    lymph/o
  23. specialized iron-containing compound that gives red blood cells their color, carries oxygen to body tissues and exchanges it for carbon dioxide
    hemoglobin
  24. form, shape, structure
    morph/o
  25. study of form, shape, and structure
    morphology
  26. bone marrow; spinal accord
    myel/o
  27. swallowing, eating
    phag/o
  28. cell that eats (foreign material)
    phagocyte
  29. formation, growth
    plas/o
  30. net, mesh
    reticul/o
  31. an immature erythrocyte that contains strands of nuclear material. This material appears as a tiny net when observed microscopically
    reticulocyte
  32. spleen
    splen/o
  33. blood clot
    thromb/o
  34. foreign, strange
    xen/o
  35. embryonic cell
    -blast
  36. blood condition
    -emia
  37. protein
    -globin
  38. any condition characterized by a reduction in the number of red blood cells or a deficiency in their hemoglobin
    anemia
  39. transplantation
    -graft
  40. abnormal condition; increase (used primarily with blood cells)
    -osis
  41. decrease, deficiency
    -penia
  42. protection
    -phylaxis
  43. formation, production
    -poiesis
  44. standing still
    -stasis
  45. without, not
    a-
  46. other, differing from the normal
    allo-
  47. same, equal
    iso-
  48. large
    macro-
  49. small
    micro-
  50. one
    mono-
  51. many, much
    poly-
  52. a deficiency of erythrocytes or hemoglobin in the blood; it is not a disease but a symptom of other illness
    anemia
  53. decreased blood formation within bone marrow; bone marrow failure; results in erythropenia, leukopenia, and thrombocytopenia
    aplastic anemia
  54. inherited anemia that causes RBCs to become crescent shaped when oyxgen levels are low
    sickle cell anemia
  55. paleness
    pallor
  56. the immune system becomes weak
    immunocompromised
  57. a neoplastic disorder closely associated with AIDS and is considered AIDS-defining diseases; a malignancy of connective tissue, including bone, fat, muscle, and fibrous tissue; tumors readily metastasize to other organs
    kaposi sarcoma
  58. periods of flare-up
    exacerbations
  59. an abnormal accumulation of fluids in the intercellular spaces of the body
    edema
  60. medications that promote urination
    diuretics
  61. a malignant disease of the lymph system primarily the lymph nodes
    Hodgkin disease / Hodgkin lymphoma
  62. swelling, primarily in a single arm or leg, due to an accumulation of lymph within tissues caused by obstruction or disease in the lymph vessels
    lymphedema
  63. presence of bacteria or their toxins in the blood; also called blood poisoning
    sepsis / septicemia
  64. overproduction of platelets, leading to bleeding disorders due to platelet malformations
    thrombocythemia
  65. abnormal decrease in platelets caused by low production of platelets in the bone marrow or increased destruction of platelets in the blood vessels, spleen, or liver
    thrombocytopenia
  66. removal of a small sample of bone marrow using a thin aspiring needle (usually from the pelvis) for microscopic examination
    bone marrow aspiration
  67. infusion of healthy bone marrow stem cells after the diseased bone marrow is destroyed by chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy; used to treat leukemia, aplastic anemia, and certain cancers
    bone marrow transplant
  68. removal of the first node that receives drainage from cancer-containing areas and the one most likely to contain malignant cells
    sentinel node excision
  69. series of tests that includes hemoglobin; hematocrit; red and white blood cell counts, platelets count; and differential (diff) count; also called hemogram
    complete blood count (CBC)
  70. prevent blood clot formation by inhibiting the synthesis or inactivating one or more cloting factors
    anticoagulants
  71. dissolve blood clots by dissolving their fibrin strands
    thrombolytics
  72. and anticoagulant that prevents blood clots but does not break up a clot that has already occured
    heparin
  73. skin discoloration consisting of a large, irregularly formed hemorrhagic area with colors changing from blue-black to greenish brown or yellow; commonly called a bruise
    eccymosis
  74. nasal hemorrhage; nosebleed
    epistaxis
  75. purpose is to recognize particular substances which are foreign to the body and remove the material from the tissues
    immune system
  76. packed cell volume (PCV) – the fraction of whole blood volume that consists of red blood cells
    hematocrit
  77. counting the number of specific types of white blood cells found in 1 cubic millimeter of blood; may be included as part of a complete blood count
    differential count
  78. a measurement of the amount or concentration of a substance in a solution; usually refers to the amount of antibodies found in a patient's blood
    titer
  79. traditionally used to describe infections that developed in the hospital or to describe infections that were acquired in the hospital but did not develop until after discharge
    nasocomial
  80. allow for the enhanced visibility of soft tissue and other areas with low natural contrast
    contrast media
  81. often done before a bone marrow transplant to suppress the immune system so patient will be less likely to reject the new bone marrow
    Total Body Irradiation (TBI)
  82. not irradiating the entire body, just all the lymph nodes; usually performed on Hodgkins disease patients
    Total Nodal Irradiation (TNI)
  83. a specific type of a cell that will be found in all patients with Hodgkins Disease thus if someone has this cell then they are diagnosed with Hodgkins Disease
    Reed Sternberg Cell
  84. patient lying on the table with elbows bent
    akimbo
  85. ring of tonsillar tissue that encircles the nasopharynx and oropharynx
    Waldeyer's Ring
  86. a gene that has the potential to cause cancer
    oncogene
  87. programmed cell death
    apoptosis
  88. a substance manufactured and released by the tumor
    tumor marker
  89. dilation of the surface blood vessels caused by the loss of capillary tone, resulting in a fine spider-vein appearance on the skin surface
    telangiectasia
  90. transport oxygen and carbon dioxide
    red blood cells
  91. provide defenses against diseases and other harmful substances and aid in tissue repair
    white blood cells
  92. provide mechanisms for blood coagulation
    platelets
  93. 92% water
    plasma
  94. nodes, spleen, thymus, tonsils
    lymph system
  95. primary cells in immune system
    lymphocytes
  96. decrease in amount of hemoglobin
    hypochromasia
  97. decrease in number of RBCs
    erythropenia
  98. infectious disease caused by the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which slowly destroys the immune system
    Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS)
  99. failure of body to distinguish between "self" and "non-self"; attacks antigens found in its own cells causing tissue injury; usually chronic, requires lifelong care and monitoring; few have cures
    autoimmune disease

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