anatomy exam muscles

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Author:
alicia0309
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240668
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anatomy exam muscles
Updated:
2013-10-14 22:42:59
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human anatomy
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chapter 10
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  1. what are the three types of muscles and their features?
    • cardiac-striated-involuntary
    • smooth-nonstriated-involuntary
    • skeletal-striated-voluntary
  2. what are the four unique characteristics of muscle tissue?
    • Excitibility
    • Contractibility
    • Elasticity
    • Extensibility
  3. Extensibility
    ability of muscle fiber to be stretched be yond relaxed length
  4. Elasticity
    the muscle fiber's ability to return to its original length when the tension of contraction is released
  5. Excitability
    • outside stimuli can initiate electrical changes in the muscle fiber
    • leading to contraction of the muscle fiber
  6. contractability
    stimulation of muscle fiber can lead to contraction (shortening) of the  muscle fibers
  7. skeletal muscle are considered _______ because it contains and is constructed of ______
    • an organ
    • all four tissue types
  8. functions of the skeletal muscle tissue
    • Body Movement
    • Maintain Posture
    • Temperature Regulation
    • Storage and movement of materials
    • support
  9. each skeletal muscle is composed of
    Muscle fiers
  10. muscle fibers are organized into
    bundles called fascicles
  11. muscle fibers contain _______ and are composed of ________
    • contain myofibrils
    • composed of myofilaments
  12. myofilaments are mainly composed of
    • Actin
    • and
    • Myosin
  13. what is the order of skeletal muscle Structural Organization
    • Muscle
    • Fascicles
    • Muscle Fiber
    • Myofibrils
    • Myofilaments
    • Actin and Myosin
  14. layers of connective tissue
    • Endomysium
    • Perimysium
    • Epimysium
    • Deep and Superficial Fascia
  15. the innermost layer on connective tissue that surrounds and electrically insulates each muscle fiber
    Endomysium
  16. perimysium
    surrounds individual fascicles
  17. layer of connective tissue that surrounds the entire muscle
    Epimysium
  18. the connective tissue that surrounds each muscle and separate muscles from each other
    Deep and Superficial Fascia
  19. tendon
    • at the end of each muscle, all the connective tissue merge to form tendon
    • attaches muscle to bone
  20. Flat tendons
    Aponeurosis
  21. origin
    point of attachment that does not move
  22. insertion
    point of attachment to a bone that moves
  23. skeletal muscle
    plasma membrane
    sarcolemma
  24. skeletal muscle
    Cytoplasm
    sarcoplasm
  25. skeletal muscle
    Smooth ER
    sarcoplasmic reticulum
  26. what are the two main structures of muscle fiber
    Transverse tubules (T-Tubules)-deep tubes of the sarcolemma that extend into the sarcoplasm

    Terminal cisternae-sacs at the end of sarcoplasmic reticulum
  27. the sarcoplasm of a muscle fiber contains 100-1000 of cylindrical structures that extend the length of the cell.
    what are they?
    • Myofibrils
    • they have the ability to shorten/contract
  28. myofibrils are composed of short bundles of ____
    • myofilaments
    • they are organized in repetitive groupings
  29. two types of filaments
    • Thin Filaments--Actin and associated proteins
    • Thick Filaments--Myosin
  30. thin filaments have two regulatory proteins,
    • Tropomyosin
    • Troponin
  31. thin filaments are comprised of ____
    • two strands of bead shaped molecules twisted around each other
    • PEARL NECKLACE
  32. thick filaments are composed of
    myosin
  33. what do thick filaments look like
    myosin looks like golf clubs wrapped around each other
  34. A-Bands
    • A bands are dark bands
    • contain entire myosin molecule and overlapping actin
  35. I-Bands
    • light bands
    • contain thin filaments but not thick filaments
  36. z-disk
    • protein structure in the middle of I band
    • serves for attachment site for thin filaments
  37. M-line
    meshwork
  38. H zone (band)
    light central region of A BAnd where there are no thin filaments
  39. Sarcomere
    The functional contractile unit in skeletal muscle fiber
  40. Wen does muscle contraction begin?
    when a motor neuron impulse stimulates a muscle fiber
  41. Neuromuscular Junction
    the region where the motor neuron comes into close proximity to the muscle fiber
  42. Motor End Plate
    region of sarcolemma across from the synaptic knob that has folds and indentations to increase the surface area
  43. Synaptic Knob
    expanded end of the neuron
  44. Motor Unit
    • a single motor neuron and the muscle fibers it controls
    • Only controls a few muscle fibers in an entire muscle
  45. larger muscles have more than 1 motor neuron?
    true or false
  46. TRUE
  47. when motor unit is stimulated how many of the fibers under its control will contract?
    ALL-OR-NONE
  48. muscle atrophy
    • wasting away of the muscle
    • disuse
    • lack of stimulation
  49. Muscle Hypertrophy
    • increase in muscle size
    • myofibrils and myofilaments increase in number
  50. types of skeletal muscle fibers
    • Slow (type I, slow oxidative)
    • Intermediate (typeIIa, fast aerobic)
    • Fast (type IIb, fast anaerobic)
  51. slow fibers are ____
    red
  52. intermediate fibers are _____
    pink
  53. fast fibers are_____
    white
  54. what are the four different patterns of fascicle arrangements
     fibers are organized into fascicles within the muscle
    • Circular
    • Convergent
    • Parallel
    • Pennate
  55. pennate =
    feather shaped
  56. convergent
    triangular common attachment site
  57. Agonist
    Prime Mover
  58. Antagonist
    opposes the agonist
  59. Synergist
    assists prime mover
  60. cardiac muscle fibers
    • striated
    • One or Two nuclei
    • Form Y-shaped branches
  61. cardiac muscle fibers join other cells and form junctions called _____
    intercalated discs
  62. autorhythmic
    able to generate impulse without stimulation from nerves
  63. smooth muscle fibers are found _______
    • blood vessels
    • walls of viscera
    • Walls of Hollow Organs
  64. smooth muscle fiber
    Shape
    how many nuclei
    • fusiform
    • 1 nucleus
    • non striated
    • involuntary

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