Bio 3

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Bio 3
2013-10-15 12:42:45

Bio 3 Notes
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  1. cell
    • he smallest structural and functional unit of an organism,
    • typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed
    • in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single
    • cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.
  2. anton Van Leeuwenhoek
    • Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek was a Dutch tradesman and
    • scientist. He is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and
    • considered to be the first microbiologis
  3. Robert hooke
    Robert Hooke was the first to study and record cells by using a microscope.
  4. Cell Theory
    • (biology) the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and
    • functional units of all living organisms; proposed in 1838 by Matthias
    • Schleiden and by Theodor Schwann
  5. prokaryotic cells
    • The prokaryotes are a group of organisms whose cells lack a
    • membrane-bound nucleus (karyon). The organisms whose cells do have a
    • nucleus are called eukaryotes
  6. eukaryotic cell
    • A eukaryote (or) is an organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other
    • structures (organelles) enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes are
    • formally the taxon Eukarya or Eukaryota.
  7. plasma cells
    a fully differentiated B cell that produces a single type of antibody.
  8. selectively permeable
    • semipermeable membrane, also termed a selectively permeable membrane, a
    • partially permeable membrane or a differentially permeable membrane, is
    • a membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it
    • by diffusion and occasionally specialized "facilitated diffusion
  9. Diffusion
    spreding something widely
  10. Cell wall
    • a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane
    • of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher
    • plants, it consists mainly of cellulose.
  11. organelles
    any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.Origin
  12. Nucleus
    the central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth
  13. nuclear evealope
    • A nuclear membrane, also known as the nuclear envelope, nucleolemma or
    • karyotheca, is the double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the
    • genetic material and nucleolus in eukaryotic cells.
  14. chromatin
    • the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than
    • bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed. It consists of protein, RNA,
    • and DNA.
  15. genomics
    the branch of molecular biology concerned with the structure, function, evolution, and mapping of genomes.Origin
  16. nucleolus
    a small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase.
  17. Ribosome
    • a
    • minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in
    • large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA
    • and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.Origin
  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a
    • eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. It usually has
    • ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis.
  19. cytoplasm
    the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
  20. rough endoplasmic reticulum
    An endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a eukaryotic organelle made up of a system of membranous tubes and sacs, that is studded with ribosomes on its surface giving it a rough appearance under the microscope (hence its name).
  21. Golgui Apperatus
    • a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of
    • most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular
    • transport.
  22. vacuoles
    a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid.a small cavity or space in tissue, esp. in nervous tissue as the result of disease.Origin
  23. central vocule
    A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial
    an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane.
  25. turgour pressure
    • Turgor pressure pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall of
    • plant, bacteria, and fungi cells as well as those protist cells which
    • have cell walls.
  26. Mitochondria
    • an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the
    • biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has
    • a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers
    a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.Origin
  28. chlorophyll
    • a
    • green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria,
    • responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for
    • photosynthesis. Its molecule contains a magnesium atom held in a
    • porphyrin ring.OriginMoreearly 19th cent.: coined in French from Greek khlōros ‘green’ + phullon ‘leaf.’Translate chlorophyll toUse over time for: chlorophyll
  29. Cytoskeoleton
    The skelton of a cell
  30. Microtuble
    • a microscopic tubular structure present in numbers in the
    • cytoplasm of cells, sometimes aggregating to form more complex
    • structures.
  31. cilia
    plural form of cilium.
  32. flagella
    • a
    • slender threadlike structure, esp. a microscopic whiplike appendage
    • that enables many protozoa, bacteria, spermatozoa, etc., to swim.Origin
  33. homeostasis
    the minimum body requirements to have a stable healthbody
  34. bilayer
    • a
    • film two molecules thick (formed, e.g., by lipids), in which each
    • molecule is arranged with its hydrophobic end directed inward toward the
    • opposite side of the film and its hydrophilic end directed outward.Translate bilayer toUse over time for: bilayer
  35. Lipid Layer
    • The lipid bilayer is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid
    • molecules. These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous
    • barrier around cells
  36. phospholipid
    a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule
  37. fluid mosaic
    • The cell membrane (also known as the love membrane or cytoplasmic
    • membrane) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all
    • cells from the outside environment.
  38. choesteral
    • a
    • compound of the sterol type found in most body tissues, including the
    • blood and the nerves. Cholesterol and its derivatives are important
    • constituents of cell membranes and precursors of other steroid
    • compounds, but high concentrations in the blood (mainly derived from
    • animal fats in the diet) are thought to promote atherosclerosis.Origin
  39. Membrane proteins
    • Membrane proteins constitute one of the three main protein classes, with
    • the other classes being the fibrous and globular proteins. Membrane
    • proteins are attached to, or associated with the membrane of a cell or
    • an organelle
  40. Carrier protien
    • Carrier
    • proteins are proteins involved in the movement of ions, small
    • molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a
    • biological membrane
  41. Search ResultsIsotonic solution
    a solution having the same osmotic pressure as blood
  42. exctocyticis
    • a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to
    • the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell
    • membrane
  43. endocytosis
    the taking in of matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole.
  44. plasmosis
    contraction of the protoplast of a plant cell as a result of loss of water from the cell.