Bio 3

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Bio 3
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2013-10-15 12:42:45
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Bio 3 Notes
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  1. cell
    • he smallest structural and functional unit of an organism,
    • typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed
    • in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single
    • cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.
  2. anton Van Leeuwenhoek
    • Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek was a Dutch tradesman and
    • scientist. He is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and
    • considered to be the first microbiologis
  3. Robert hooke
    Robert Hooke was the first to study and record cells by using a microscope.
  4. Cell Theory
    • (biology) the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and
    • functional units of all living organisms; proposed in 1838 by Matthias
    • Schleiden and by Theodor Schwann
  5. prokaryotic cells
    • The prokaryotes are a group of organisms whose cells lack a
    • membrane-bound nucleus (karyon). The organisms whose cells do have a
    • nucleus are called eukaryotes
  6. eukaryotic cell
    • A eukaryote (or) is an organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other
    • structures (organelles) enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes are
    • formally the taxon Eukarya or Eukaryota.
  7. plasma cells
    a fully differentiated B cell that produces a single type of antibody.
  8. selectively permeable
    • semipermeable membrane, also termed a selectively permeable membrane, a
    • partially permeable membrane or a differentially permeable membrane, is
    • a membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it
    • by diffusion and occasionally specialized "facilitated diffusion
  9. Diffusion
    spreding something widely
  10. Cell wall
    • a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane
    • of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher
    • plants, it consists mainly of cellulose.
  11. organelles
    any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.Origin
  12. Nucleus
    the central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth
  13. nuclear evealope
    • A nuclear membrane, also known as the nuclear envelope, nucleolemma or
    • karyotheca, is the double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the
    • genetic material and nucleolus in eukaryotic cells.
  14. chromatin
    • the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than
    • bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed. It consists of protein, RNA,
    • and DNA.
  15. genomics
    the branch of molecular biology concerned with the structure, function, evolution, and mapping of genomes.Origin
  16. nucleolus
    a small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase.
  17. Ribosome
    • a
    • minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in
    • large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA
    • and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.Origin
  18. Endoplasmic Reticulum
    • a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a
    • eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. It usually has
    • ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis.
  19. cytoplasm
    the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
  20. rough endoplasmic reticulum
    An endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a eukaryotic organelle made up of a system of membranous tubes and sacs, that is studded with ribosomes on its surface giving it a rough appearance under the microscope (hence its name).
  21. Golgui Apperatus
    • a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of
    • most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular
    • transport.
  22. vacuoles
    a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid.a small cavity or space in tissue, esp. in nervous tissue as the result of disease.Origin
  23. central vocule
    A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial
  24. LYSOSOMES
    an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane.
  25. turgour pressure
    • Turgor pressure pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall of
    • plant, bacteria, and fungi cells as well as those protist cells which
    • have cell walls.
  26. Mitochondria
    • an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the
    • biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has
    • a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers
  27. CHOROPASTS
    a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.Origin
  28. chlorophyll
    • a
    • green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria,
    • responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for
    • photosynthesis. Its molecule contains a magnesium atom held in a
    • porphyrin ring.OriginMoreearly 19th cent.: coined in French from Greek khlōros ‘green’ + phullon ‘leaf.’Translate chlorophyll toUse over time for: chlorophyll
  29. Cytoskeoleton
    The skelton of a cell
  30. Microtuble
    • a microscopic tubular structure present in numbers in the
    • cytoplasm of cells, sometimes aggregating to form more complex
    • structures.
  31. cilia
    plural form of cilium.
  32. flagella
    • a
    • slender threadlike structure, esp. a microscopic whiplike appendage
    • that enables many protozoa, bacteria, spermatozoa, etc., to swim.Origin
  33. homeostasis
    the minimum body requirements to have a stable healthbody
  34. bilayer
    • a
    • film two molecules thick (formed, e.g., by lipids), in which each
    • molecule is arranged with its hydrophobic end directed inward toward the
    • opposite side of the film and its hydrophilic end directed outward.Translate bilayer toUse over time for: bilayer
  35. Lipid Layer
    • The lipid bilayer is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid
    • molecules. These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous
    • barrier around cells
  36. phospholipid
    a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule
  37. fluid mosaic
    • The cell membrane (also known as the love membrane or cytoplasmic
    • membrane) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all
    • cells from the outside environment.
  38. choesteral
    • a
    • compound of the sterol type found in most body tissues, including the
    • blood and the nerves. Cholesterol and its derivatives are important
    • constituents of cell membranes and precursors of other steroid
    • compounds, but high concentrations in the blood (mainly derived from
    • animal fats in the diet) are thought to promote atherosclerosis.Origin
  39. Membrane proteins
    • Membrane proteins constitute one of the three main protein classes, with
    • the other classes being the fibrous and globular proteins. Membrane
    • proteins are attached to, or associated with the membrane of a cell or
    • an organelle
  40. Carrier protien
    • Carrier
    • proteins are proteins involved in the movement of ions, small
    • molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a
    • biological membrane
  41. Search ResultsIsotonic solution
    a solution having the same osmotic pressure as blood
  42. exctocyticis
    • a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to
    • the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell
    • membrane
  43. endocytosis
    the taking in of matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole.
  44. plasmosis
    contraction of the protoplast of a plant cell as a result of loss of water from the cell.

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