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- he smallest structural and functional unit of an organism,
- typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed
- in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single
- cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.
anton Van Leeuwenhoek
- Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek was a Dutch tradesman and
- scientist. He is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and
- considered to be the first microbiologis
Robert Hooke was the first to study and record cells by using a microscope.
- (biology) the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and
- functional units of all living organisms; proposed in 1838 by Matthias
- Schleiden and by Theodor Schwann
- The prokaryotes are a group of organisms whose cells lack a
- membrane-bound nucleus (karyon). The organisms whose cells do have a
- nucleus are called eukaryotes
- A eukaryote (or) is an organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other
- structures (organelles) enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes are
- formally the taxon Eukarya or Eukaryota.
a fully differentiated B cell that produces a single type of antibody.
- semipermeable membrane, also termed a selectively permeable membrane, a
- partially permeable membrane or a differentially permeable membrane, is
- a membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it
- by diffusion and occasionally specialized "facilitated diffusion
spreding something widely
- a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane
- of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher
- plants, it consists mainly of cellulose.
any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.Origin
the central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth
- A nuclear membrane, also known as the nuclear envelope, nucleolemma or
- karyotheca, is the double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the
- genetic material and nucleolus in eukaryotic cells.
- the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than
- bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed. It consists of protein, RNA,
- and DNA.
the branch of molecular biology concerned with the structure, function, evolution, and mapping of genomes.Origin
a small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase.
- minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in
- large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA
- and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.Origin
- a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a
- eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. It usually has
- ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis.
the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
rough endoplasmic reticulum
An endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a eukaryotic organelle made up of a system of membranous tubes and sacs, that is studded with ribosomes on its surface giving it a rough appearance under the microscope (hence its name).
- a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of
- most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular
a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid.a small cavity or space in tissue, esp. in nervous tissue as the result of disease.Origin
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial
an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane.
- Turgor pressure pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall of
- plant, bacteria, and fungi cells as well as those protist cells which
- have cell walls.
- an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the
- biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has
- a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers
a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.Origin
- green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria,
- responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for
- photosynthesis. Its molecule contains a magnesium atom held in a
- porphyrin ring.OriginMoreearly 19th cent.: coined in French from Greek khlōros ‘green’ + phullon ‘leaf.’Translate chlorophyll toUse over time for: chlorophyll
The skelton of a cell
- a microscopic tubular structure present in numbers in the
- cytoplasm of cells, sometimes aggregating to form more complex
plural form of cilium.
- slender threadlike structure, esp. a microscopic whiplike appendage
- that enables many protozoa, bacteria, spermatozoa, etc., to swim.Origin
the minimum body requirements to have a stable healthbody
- film two molecules thick (formed, e.g., by lipids), in which each
- molecule is arranged with its hydrophobic end directed inward toward the
- opposite side of the film and its hydrophilic end directed outward.Translate bilayer toUse over time for: bilayer
- The lipid bilayer is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid
- molecules. These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous
- barrier around cells
a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule
- The cell membrane (also known as the love membrane or cytoplasmic
- membrane) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all
- cells from the outside environment.
- compound of the sterol type found in most body tissues, including the
- blood and the nerves. Cholesterol and its derivatives are important
- constituents of cell membranes and precursors of other steroid
- compounds, but high concentrations in the blood (mainly derived from
- animal fats in the diet) are thought to promote atherosclerosis.Origin
- Membrane proteins constitute one of the three main protein classes, with
- the other classes being the fibrous and globular proteins. Membrane
- proteins are attached to, or associated with the membrane of a cell or
- an organelle
- proteins are proteins involved in the movement of ions, small
- molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a
- biological membrane
Search ResultsIsotonic solution
a solution having the same osmotic pressure as blood
- a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to
- the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell
the taking in of matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole.
contraction of the protoplast of a plant cell as a result of loss of water from the cell.