he smallest structural and functional unit of an organism,
typically microscopic and consisting of cytoplasm and a nucleus enclosed
in a membrane. Microscopic organisms typically consist of a single
cell, which is either eukaryotic or prokaryotic.
anton Van Leeuwenhoek
Antonie Philips van Leeuwenhoek was a Dutch tradesman and
scientist. He is commonly known as "the Father of Microbiology", and
considered to be the first microbiologis
Robert Hooke was the first to study and record cells by using a microscope.
(biology) the theory that cells form the fundamental structural and
functional units of all living organisms; proposed in 1838 by Matthias
Schleiden and by Theodor Schwann
The prokaryotes are a group of organisms whose cells lack a
membrane-bound nucleus (karyon). The organisms whose cells do have a
nucleus are called eukaryotes
A eukaryote (or) is an organism whose cells contain a nucleus and other
structures (organelles) enclosed within membranes. Eukaryotes are
formally the taxon Eukarya or Eukaryota.
a fully differentiated B cell that produces a single type of antibody.
semipermeable membrane, also termed a selectively permeable membrane, a
partially permeable membrane or a differentially permeable membrane, is
a membrane that will allow certain molecules or ions to pass through it
by diffusion and occasionally specialized "facilitated diffusion
spreding something widely
a rigid layer of polysaccharides lying outside the plasma membrane
of the cells of plants, fungi, and bacteria. In the algae and higher
plants, it consists mainly of cellulose.
any of a number of organized or specialized structures within a living cell.Origin
the central and most important part of an object, movement, or group, forming the basis for its activity and growth
A nuclear membrane, also known as the nuclear envelope, nucleolemma or
karyotheca, is the double lipid bilayer membrane which surrounds the
genetic material and nucleolus in eukaryotic cells.
the material of which the chromosomes of organisms other than
bacteria (i.e., eukaryotes) are composed. It consists of protein, RNA,
the branch of molecular biology concerned with the structure, function, evolution, and mapping of genomes.Origin
a small dense spherical structure in the nucleus of a cell during interphase.
minute particle consisting of RNA and associated proteins, found in
large numbers in the cytoplasm of living cells. They bind messenger RNA
and transfer RNA to synthesize polypeptides and proteins.Origin
a network of membranous tubules within the cytoplasm of a
eukaryotic cell, continuous with the nuclear membrane. It usually has
ribosomes attached and is involved in protein and lipid synthesis.
the material or protoplasm within a living cell, excluding the nucleus.
rough endoplasmic reticulum
An endoplasmic reticulum (ER), a eukaryotic organelle made up of a system of membranous tubes and sacs, that is studded with ribosomes on its surface giving it a rough appearance under the microscope (hence its name).
a complex of vesicles and folded membranes within the cytoplasm of
most eukaryotic cells, involved in secretion and intracellular
a space or vesicle within the cytoplasm of a cell, enclosed by a membrane and typically containing fluid.a small cavity or space in tissue, esp. in nervous tissue as the result of disease.Origin
A vacuole is a membrane-bound organelle which is present in all plant and fungal cells and some protist, animal and bacterial
an organelle in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells containing degradative enzymes enclosed in a membrane.
Turgor pressure pushes the plasma membrane against the cell wall of
plant, bacteria, and fungi cells as well as those protist cells which
have cell walls.
an organelle found in large numbers in most cells, in which the
biochemical processes of respiration and energy production occur. It has
a double membrane, the inner layer being folded inward to form layers
a plastid that contains chlorophyll and in which photosynthesis takes place.Origin
green pigment, present in all green plants and in cyanobacteria,
responsible for the absorption of light to provide energy for
photosynthesis. Its molecule contains a magnesium atom held in a
porphyrin ring.OriginMoreearly 19th cent.: coined in French from Greek khlōros ‘green’ + phullon ‘leaf.’Translate chlorophyll toUse over time for: chlorophyll
The skelton of a cell
a microscopic tubular structure present in numbers in the
cytoplasm of cells, sometimes aggregating to form more complex
plural form of cilium.
slender threadlike structure, esp. a microscopic whiplike appendage
that enables many protozoa, bacteria, spermatozoa, etc., to swim.Origin
the minimum body requirements to have a stable healthbody
film two molecules thick (formed, e.g., by lipids), in which each
molecule is arranged with its hydrophobic end directed inward toward the
opposite side of the film and its hydrophilic end directed outward.Translate bilayer toUse over time for: bilayer
The lipid bilayer is a thin polar membrane made of two layers of lipid
molecules. These membranes are flat sheets that form a continuous
barrier around cells
a lipid containing a phosphate group in its molecule
The cell membrane (also known as the love membrane or cytoplasmic
membrane) is a biological membrane that separates the interior of all
cells from the outside environment.
compound of the sterol type found in most body tissues, including the
blood and the nerves. Cholesterol and its derivatives are important
constituents of cell membranes and precursors of other steroid
compounds, but high concentrations in the blood (mainly derived from
animal fats in the diet) are thought to promote atherosclerosis.Origin
Membrane proteins constitute one of the three main protein classes, with
the other classes being the fibrous and globular proteins. Membrane
proteins are attached to, or associated with the membrane of a cell or
proteins are proteins involved in the movement of ions, small
molecules, or macromolecules, such as another protein, across a
Search ResultsIsotonic solution
a solution having the same osmotic pressure as blood
a process by which the contents of a cell vacuole are released to
the exterior through fusion of the vacuole membrane with the cell
the taking in of matter by a living cell by invagination of its membrane to form a vacuole.
contraction of the protoplast of a plant cell as a result of loss of water from the cell.