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2013-10-14 23:34:00
ARCH 321

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  1. Daniel Botkin
    Studied possible effects of climate change on biodiversity. Known for novel Discordant Harmonies - considered by many to be the classic text of the environmental movement; was the first book to challenge the then dominant view that nature remained constant over time unless disturbed by human influence, if disturbed nature would recover and return to state of perfect balance; Botkin argues that natural ecological systems are constantly fluctuating and our plans, policies, and laws governing the environment must change to reflect this new understanding.
  2. Fredrick Nietzsche:
    Philosopher and poet focusing on human morality and nature interactions
  3. Ian McHarg
    Founded landscape architecture program at University of Pennsylvania. Had a desire to establish a rigor in site analysis. Developed the “Ecological Method” - a very rigorous and academic approach to site analysis to design. The Ecological Method played an important role in developing a Masters Program in Landscape Architecture. The Ecological Method is a heavy mapping, data interpretation, and site analysis tool. (If two were to do same study, they would get the same results)
  4. Maurice Merleau-Ponty
    responsible for phenomenology - understanding things/environments through experiencing the  tangible (ex. materials, characteristics of the environment)
  5. Silent Spring Rachel Carson
    Rachel Carson is the author of Silent Spring. Although Lewis Mumford and Ian McHarg wrote about ecology, it was very “academia”. Rachel Carson is known for putting ecology known to the public mainstream. Ex. government discontinuing DDP as a food pesticide
  6. Lewis Mumford
    Developed the concept of critical regionalism. He was against industrialism and saw it as a negative. He went in-depth with how Technics is important but it should not be focused on how it can be sustained but how it can benefit humans in a long term mindset. Technology is not the whole, but a portion to bring people towards sustainment. (Psychology and sociology are other factors along with technology)
  7. Ebenezer Howard
    Developed the concept of the “Garden City”.^ The idea of a self-sustaining city: The identity of the city is determined by what surrounds its center (A park is at the heart of the city, an area that is open to everyone)^ Center: park > followed by schools, universities, art > outside: agriculture and industrial (less populated areas). The core is the identity of the city
  8. Pierre Charles L’Enfant
    Designed the plan/layout of  Washington, D.C.Washington D.C. designer that essentially slams a grid of streets on to the site with boulevards crossing perpendicular. The site is merely a 2D plan, inconsiderate of the topography. French designers tend to just insert a grid. Where a Roman designer would have put the Capitol or important buildings on a hill.
  9. Andre Le Norte
    “ I am not done with….”; Landscape Designer: Palace of Versailles represents “Man’s dominance over nature…”
  10. Robert McArthur
    Ecologist: who coined the theory “Island Biogeography”- Living organisms connection to geography
  11. Charles Waldheim
    Chair of Landscape Architecture @ Harvard. Thought that infrastructure can be beautiful/ beneficial to Landscape Architecture.
  12. Rem Koolhaas
    “the approach to design has order and structure with a set of values”^ Coined the term Indeterminacy: No hierarchy or sequence
  13. Laurie Olin
    Current Landscape Architect. Faculty at U. Penn.
  14. Bernard Tschumi
    Architect/ TheoristWon the design competition for Parc de Vilette
  15. Biosphere I & II:
    Structures that were designed to contain an ecosystem. Located in the University of Arizona. The first biosphere failed because the containment was losing oxygen. It wasn’t until the end phase of the first biosphere that it was discovered that the foundation was porous concrete.
  16. Garden City
    at the center point of the city is a park. Surrounding the park is the downtown portion of government buildings, schools, places and services essential for society. While the outskirts of the city is more focused on agriculture and residential zones. Approximately 60,000 people can populate one garden city.
  17. Sine qua non
    essential part - without it, the other parts will not exist (ex. without Palagi, the SoA will not exist)
  18. Retrogression
    Moving from a complex form to a more simpler form in a negative way
  19. Genius Loci:
    a reference to the spirit of a place (the character of the atmosphere).
  20. Gause’s Law
    the concept where two different organism that exhibit similar survival behavior and rely on similar foods cannot coexist. Each fit into a specific niche and play a specific role and if both participate in similar activities one may be responsible for the death of the other.
  21. Key Stone Species
    A species/ organism in any trophic level of life that has a detrimental effect on the organisms and the ecosystem around it if it were to die or removed.  Key stone species do not necessarily have to be the majority, but also can be a minor.
  22. Island Biogeography
    An isolated area (whether it be isolate by an ocean or mountains) with its own environment, habitat, species and the relationship between organisms and environment
  23. Megapolis
    A bunch of metropolises connected closely
  24. Corridor:
    “relative to Island Biogeography”. Corridors are the connections between Island Biogeography. The greater and more prominent the connection between 2 or more Island Biogeographies, the greater the chance of survival for the isolated environments(Island Biogeography)
  25. Intermediate Disturbance
    Allows an area to be destroyed. Competition happens between population of organism where one population dies for another to thrive.
  26. Metapopulation theory
    A large population that has different species  has a greater chance to survive. This is due to small groups dying away and large groups migrating
  27. Fresh Kills Park, NYC
    former landfill in Staten Island designer to become a large park. Designed by James Corner
  28. Designer Ecology – Small parks
    Designer Ecology is essentially an aesthetic, non-functional ecology. It requires a lot of maintenance, and is usually not self-sustaining. It is however noted that small parks has a role to society that reminds people to think about ecology.
  29. Ecological Design-Large parks
    Ecological design is intended as a large self sustaining environment requiring little or no maintenance. Large parks are self sustaining. Large parks allow for disturbances to occur, but allows ecosystems to adaptively regrow from disturbances to better disturbances
  30. Parc del la Villette
    Design competition in France to change a former industrial/slaughterhouse site and change it to a park. 1st place winner was Bernard Tschumi. Second place was Rhem Koolhaus. Of the many entries, they were the only two designers to introduce a park with no fixed design, interdeternincy, no order, no hierarchy.
  31. Downsview Park (Toronto)
    designed to be a sustainable city. It was also designed to be community integrated and economic sustainable
  32. Ecology
    the study of organisms and their relationship to the environment (ecosystems).
  33. Anthropocentric
    human understanding and being seen as an entity of the universe.
  34. Vernacular
    the use of local/regional resources of an area^ form is “pragmatic”regional development based on pragmatic needs, identifiable of an area
  35. Biome
    a site specific ecosystem and is mainly defined by its climatic, geographical and regional location.
  36. Phenomenology
    Understanding the experience of something; “Inherent qualities that are expressed”
  37. Empirically
    something that is based off experience or observation (testing is needed).
  38. Symbiosis
    a relationship between organism where both species benefit from the actions/habits of another.
  39. aquifer
    an area underground that stores water. The area is mainly porous rocks or bedrock for water to flow and travel. (not in mud or soil)
  40. Attenuate
    a situation or pattern that is gradually reduced.^ example: a the thickness of a blade slowly gets narrow from one end to the other
  41. Nascent
    a synonym for something “new” or newly introduced (beginning to exists).
  42. monoculture
    agricultural practice of producing or growing a single crop or plant species over a wide area and for a large number of consecutive years. It is widely used in modern industrial agriculture and its implementation has allowed for large harvests from minimal labour.
  43. Hydrology
    an intensive study of water everywhere on the Earth. This is a reference to water around the world, oceans, streams, the water cycle and the concentration in the atmosphere, etc.
  44. homogeneous
    something that is uniformed
  45. heterogeneous
    a mix of something
  46. implicit:
    something that has the potential to be understood.. A message that is presented but not directly implied or stated.
  47. Explicit
    something that clear. A message that can be easily deciphered.
  48. Stochastic
    something that is random/ uncontrolled. This definition is related to the random and dynamic of nature.
  49. Dystopia
    : opposite of utopia. A city of fear and dehumanalization
  50. Myopia:
    a lack of foresight or discernment :  a narrow view of something
  51. Ephemeral
    something that is light, temporary (something that will go away).
  52. Confluence
    the coming together of something (reference to situations that meet up).
  53. Nihilism
    a belief of a certain morals, ideas, and beliefs have no value^ if something is wrong a change is needed. (ex. government- a corrupt gov’t needs to change)^ Normally tied to people who see something as “wrong” and cannot be changed or fixed, it is so “wrong” that it needs to be taken out. ie: firing all the professors and dean