A&P Tissues

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A&P Tissues
2013-10-16 12:42:07
Human anatomy tissues

A&P Chapter 4
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  1. Groups of cells that are similar in structure and perform a common or related function.
  2. For preparing tissues for microscopic viewing, what 3 steps must be used?
    • Fixed (preserved)
    • Sectioned (sliced)
    • Stained
  3. Sheets of cells that cover a body surface or lines a body cavity.
    Epithelial tissue or Epithelium
  4. Epithelial tissue occurs in the body as....
    • Covering and lining epithelium - forms the outer layer of the skin;lines the open cavities of the cardiovascular, digestive and respiratory systems; covers the walls and organs of closed ventral body cavity.
    • Glandular epithelium - forms glands
  5. The six functions of epithelial tissues:
    • Protection
    • Absorption
    • Filtration
    • Excretion
    • Secretion
    • Sensory reception
  6. The five special characteristics of epithelium:
    • Polarity
    • Specialized contacts
    • Supported by connective tissue
    • Avascular but innervated
    • Regeneration
  7. The special characteristic of epithelium meaning that cell regions near the apical surface differ from those near the basal surface in both structure and function.
  8. The special characteristic of epithelium that refers to the connections that keep the cells close together to form continuous sheets.
    Specialized contacts
  9. The special characteristic of epithelium that refers to the type of tissue deep to it.
    Supported by connective tissue
  10. The special characteristic of epithelium referring to the fact that it has no direct blood supply, but is supplied with nerve fibers.
    Avascular but innervated
  11. The special characteristic of epithelium that refers to its ability to replace itself.
  12. The upper free surface of epithelial tissue.
    Apical surface
  13. Lower attached surface of epithelial tissue.
    Basal surface
  14. Finger-like extensions on the apical surface of many epithelial tissues that greatly increase the surface area to allow for greater absorption or secretion.  Sometimes called a "brush border".
  15. Tiny, hair-like projections of some epithelial tissues that propel substances along the apical surface.
  16. A thin supporting sheet made up of glycoproteins that are secreted by the adjacent  basal surface of an epithelium as well as collagen fibers.  Makes up half of the basement membrane.
    Basal lamina
  17. Lateral contacts that bind epithelial cells together into continuous sheets.
    Tight junctions and desmosomes
  18. A layer of extracellular material just deep to the basal lamina that contains a fine network of collagen protein fibers that "belongs to" the underlying connective tissue.  Makes up half of the basement membrane.
    Reticular lamina
  19. The basal lamina and the reticular lamina form this structure that helps reinforce the epithelial sheet and defines epithelial boundaries.
    Basement membrane
  20. Epithelium is named by these two factors:
    • Shape of cell closest to the apical surface
    • Number of cell layers
  21. Slick, friction-reducing epithelium lining in lymphatic vessels and in all hollow organs of the cardiovascular system.  Made up of simple squamous epithelium.
    Endothelium (mucous membrane)
  22. Epithelium found in the serous membranes lining the ventral body cavity and covering its organs.  Made up of simple squamous epithelium.
    Mesothelium (serous membrane)
  23. A structure that makes and secretes a particular product.
  24. The aqueous fluid product made and exported from a gland and usually contains proteins but may contain lipids or steroids instead.
  25. A type of gland that eventually loses its ducts and produces hormones that are secreted into extracellular space.
    Endocrine glands or ductless glands.
  26. A type of gland that secretes it's products onto the body surface or into body cavities.  Includes mucus glands, sweat glands, oil glands, salivary glands, the liver, the pancreas, etc.
    Exocrine glands
  27. A type of exocrine gland made up of only one cell.  Examples are mucous cells and goblet cells.
    Unicellular exocrine glands
  28. A type of exocrine gland made up of a duct and a secretory unit.
    Multicellular exocrine glands
  29. Type of multicellular exocrine gland that has an unbranched duct.
    Simple glands
  30. Type of multicellular exocrine gland that has a branched duct.
    Compound glands
  31. Type of multicellular exocrine gland that has secretory cells that form tubes.
  32. Type of multicellular exocrine gland that has secretory cells that form small, flasklike sacs.
    Alveolar or acinar
  33. Type of multicellular exocrine gland that has both tubular and alveolar shaped secretory units.
  34. Type of multicellular exocrine gland that secrete their products by exocytosis as they are produced, leaving the gland intact.
    Merocrine glands
  35. Type of multicellular exocrine gland that accumulate their products within them until they rupture and are then replaced by the division of underlying cells.  Sebaceous glands (oil) are the only true example.
    Holocrine glands.
  36. The most abundant and widely distributed type of tissue in the body.
    Connective tissue
  37. The four main classes of connective tissue.
    • Connective tissue proper
    • Cartilage
    • Bone tissue
    • Blood
  38. The four major functions of connective tissue.
    • Binding & support
    • Protection
    • Insulation
    • Transportation of substances
  39. The three common characteristics of connective tissue.
    • Common origin - mesenchyme
    • Varying degrees of vascularity
    • Extracellular matrix
  40. Nonliving portion of connective tissue.
    Extracellular matrix
  41. Three main elements that make up connective tissues.
    • Ground substance
    • Fibers
    • Cells
  42. Unstructured material that fill space between cells within tissues and contains the fibers.
    Ground substance
  43. Ground substance is made up of these three components.
    • Interstitial fluid
    • Cell adhesion proteins (fibronectin, laminin)
    • Proteoglycans
  44. Two most important glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) that stick to proteoglycans in ground substance.
    • Hyaluronic acid
    • Chondroitin sufate
  45. The most widely distributed connective tissue in the body.
    Areolar connective tissue
  46. The three loose connective tissues:
    • Areolar
    • Adipose
    • Reticular
  47. The three dense connective tissues, sometimes called fibrous connective tissues:
    • Dense Irregular
    • Dense Regular
    • Dense Elastic
  48. The three varieties of cartilage:
    • Hyaline cartilage
    • Elastic cartilage
    • Fibrocartilage
  49. The three types of covering and lining membranes:
    • Cutaneous membrane
    • Mucous membrane
    • Serous membrane
  50. The name given to the layer of connective tissue that underlies mucous membranes (mesothelium).
    Lamina propria
  51. The three steps of tissue repair:
    • Inflammation
    • Organization to restore blood supply
    • Regeneration and fibrosis