Advanced Articulation Chapter 5
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Bilateral damage to the upper motor neurons results in what kind of dysarthria?
T or F: Spastic dysarthria is a rare type of dysarthria
False-spastic dysarthria is common
Damage to the pyramidal system will result in?
Weakness and slowness in the speech musculature
Damage to the motor neurons of the extrapyramidal system can result in?
Weakness, increased muscle tone (spasticity) and abnormal muscle reflexes
What is the most common cause of spastic dysarthria?
Where does a single stroke have to occur to cause spastic dysarthria?
In the brainstem
T or F: Hypernasality associated with spastic dysarthria is generally not as severe as that in flaccid dysarthria?
What is the most common articulation disorder for spastic dysarthria?
Imprecise consonants are the most common articulation disorder and vowel distortions also may be heard.
Name the most common phonatory (voice) error for patients with spastic dysarthria?
Harsh voice quality
Air leaking through a partially opened glottis during phonation results in?
Harsh vocal quality
Subglottic air that is being forced through a narrow, tightly constricted larynx results in?
A strained-strangled voice quality
T or F: A strained-strangled vocal quality is one of the most distinguishing speech errors of spastic dysarthria.
True--however it's value as a diagnostic marker is tempered slightly as it does not occur consistently in all cases.
Is the pitch high or low in spastic dysarthria?
Name the most obvious prosody characteristic of spastic dysarthria.
Overall tenseness of the laryngeal muscles which reduces the ability to contract and relax can result in?
T or F: Problems of respiration appear to play a role in spastic dysarthria.
False-problems with respiration do not appear to play as much as a role in spastic as they do in flaccid dysarthria.
Uncontrollable crying or laughter is called?
T or F: Pseudobulbar affect is less common in spastic dysarthria than other dysarthrias?
False-pseudobulbar affect is observed MORE often in spastic dysarthria than in the other types.
T or F: Drooling occurs more prominently in spastic dysarthria.
True-drooling can occur in several dysarthrias but it occurs most prominently in spastic.
List the four characteristics of prosody in spastic dysarthria.
- 1. Monopitch intonation
- 2. Monoloudness
- 3. Speaking on short phrases
- 4. Slow rate of speech
List the 7 causes of spastic dysarthria.
- 1. Stroke (single in brainstem, and two or more in other areas)
- 2. ALS
- 3. TBI
- 4. MS
- 5. Brainstem tumor
- 6. Cerebral anoxia
- 7. Viral or bacterial infections in cerebral tissue
Which system is responsible for maintaining posture, regulating reflexes, and monitoring muscle tone?
The extrapyramidal system
Why does damage to one system (pyramidal and extrapyramidal) almost always cause damage to the other?
Because they are physically so close to each other.
Describe the areas of damage that result in spastic dysarthria.
The damage must be bilateral, both the left and right tracts of the pyramidal and extrapyramidal systems must be damaged.
T or F: A single stroke in one of the cerebral hemispheres cannot cause spastic dysarthria.
True-It takes at least one stroke in each cerebral hemisphere to cause the bilateral upper motor neuron damage.
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