MIS Chapter 6 key terms

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MIS Chapter 6 key terms
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2013-10-15 19:43:27
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MIS chapter 6 key terms
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  1. Ad hoc query
    A request for information created due to unplanned information needs that is typically not saved for later use.
  2. Artificial intelligence (AI)
    The science of enabling information technologies to simulate human intelligence as well as gain sensing capabilities.
  3. Association discovery
    A data mining technique used to find associations or correlations among sets of items.
  4. Attribute
    An individual piece of information about an entity in a database.
  5. Augmented reality
    The use of information systems to enhance a person's perception of reality by providing relevant information about the user's surroundings.
  6. Big data
    Extremely large and complex datasets, typically characterized as being of high volume, variety, and velocity.
  7. Bot
    Short for "software robot"; a program that works in the background to provide some service when a specific event occurs.
  8. Business analytics
    Applications that augment business intelligence by using predictive analysis to help identify trends or predict business outcomes.
  9. Business intelligence
    The use of information systems to gather and analyze information from both external and internal sources to make better decisions, and the data derived from these processes.
  10. Business rules
    Processes by which a business runs.
  11. Buyer agent
    An intelligent agent used to find the best price for a particular product a consumer wishes to purchase. Also known as a "shopping bot."
  12. Classification
    A data mining technique used for grouping instances into predefined categories.
  13. Clickstream data
    A recording of the users' path through a website.
  14. Clustering
    A data mining technique grouping related records on the basis of having similar attributes.
  15. Competitive intelligence
    Information about competitors, used to enhance a business' strategic position.
  16. Continuous planning process
    A strategic business planning process involving continuous monitoring and adjusting of business processes to enable rapid reaction to changing business conditions.
  17. Data cleansing
    The process of detecting, correcting(ex. standardizing the format), or removing corrupt or inaccurate data retrieved from different systems.
  18. Data dictionary
    A document prepared by database designers to describe the characteristics of all items in a database.
  19. Data mart
    A data warehouse that is limited in the scope and customized for the decision support applications of a particular end-user group.
  20. Data mining
    Methods used by companies to discover "hidden" predictive relationships in data to better understand their customers, products, markets, or any other phase of their business for which data have been captured.
  21. Data mining agent
    An intelligent agent that continuously analyzes large data warehouses to detect changes deemed to be important by a user, sending a notification when such changes occur.
  22. Data model
    A map or diagram that represents the entities of a database and their relationships.
  23. Data reduction
    A preparatory step to running data mining algorithms, performed by rolling up a data cube to the smallest level of aggregation needed, reducing the dimensionality, or dividing continuous measures into discrete intervals
  24. Data type
    The type(ex. text, number, or date) of an attribute in a database.
  25. Data warehouse
    A repository containing data from multiple large databases and other sources that is suitable for direct querying, analysis, or processes.
  26. DSS
    Decision support system
  27. Destructive agent
    A malicious agent designed by spammers and other internet attackers to farm e-mail addresses off web sites or deposit spyware on machines.
  28. Digital dashboard
    A display delivering summary information to managers and executives to provide warnings, action notices, and summaries of business conditions.
  29. Dimension
    A way to summarize data, such as region, time, or product line.
  30. Drill down
    To analyze data at more detailed levels of a specific dimension.
  31. Drill-down report
    A report that provides details behind the summary values on a key-indicator or exception report.
  32. Entity
    Something data are collected about, such as people or classes.
  33. Exception report
    A report providing users with information about situations that are out of the normal operating range.
  34. Expert system (ES)
    A special-purpose information system designed to mimic human expertise by manipulating knowledge-understanding acquired through experience and extensive learning-rather than simply information.
  35. Explicit knowledge asset
    A knowledge asset that can be documented, archived, and codified.
  36. Extraction, transformation, and loading...
    The process of consolidating, cleansing, and manipulating data before loading it into a data warehouse.
  37. Form
    A business document that contains some predefined data and may include some areas where additional data is to be filled in, typically for modifying data related to a single record.
  38. Fuzzy logic
    A type of logic used in intelligent systems that allows rules to be represented using approximations or subjective values in order to handle situations where information about a problem is incomplete.
  39. Geographic information system (GIS)
    A system for creating, storing, analyzing, and managing geographically referenced information.
  40. Hard data
    Facts and numbers that are typically generated by transaction processing systems and management information systems.
  41. Inferencing
    The matching of user questions and answers to information in a knowledge base within an expert system in order to make a recommendation.
  42. Informational system
    A system designed to support decision making based on stable point-in-time or historical data.
  43. Intelligent data
    A program that works in the background to provide some service when a specific event occurs.
  44. Intelligent system
    A system comprised of sensors, software, and computers embedded in machines and devices that emulates and enhances human capabilities.
  45. Key-indicator report
    A report that provides a summary of critical information on a recurring schedule.
  46. Knowledge assets
    The set of skills, routines, practices, principles, formulas, methods, heuristics, and intuitions (both explicit and tacit) used by organizations to improve efficiency, effectiveness, and profitability.
  47. Knowledge management
    The processes an organization uses to gain the greatest value from knowledge assets.
  48. Knowledge management system
    A collection of technology-based tools that includes communications technologies and information storage and retrieval systems to enable the generation, storage, sharing, and management of tacit and explicit knowledge assets.
  49. Knowledge portal
    A specific portal used to share knowledge collected into a repository with employees (often using an intranet), with customers and suppliers (often using extranet), or the general public (often using the internet).
  50. Layer
    In a GIS, related data can be made visible or invisible when viewing a map; each layer acts like a transparency that can be turned on or off and provides additional information, such as roads, utilities, zip code boundaries, floodplains, and so on.
  51. Master data
    The data that are deemed most important in the operation of a business; typically the "actors" in an organization's transactions.
  52. Master data management
    Consolidating master data so as to facilitate arriving at a single version of the truth.
  53. Measure
    The values and numbers a user wants to analyze.Also referred to as "facts"
  54. Model
    A conceptual, mathematical, logical, or analytical formula used to represent or project business events and trends
  55. Monitoring and sensing agent
    An intelligent agent that keeps track of key information and notifies the user when conditions change.
  56. Neural network
    An information system that attempts to approximate the functioning of the human brain.
  57. NoSQL
    Highly scalable databases that do not confirm RDBMS schemas.
  58. OLAP cube
    A data structure allowing for multiple dimensions to be added to a traditional two-dimensional table for detailed analysis.
  59. OLAP server
    The chief component of an OLAP system that understands how data is organized in the database and has special functions for analyzing the data.
  60. Online analytical processing (OLAP)
    The process of quickly conducting complex analyses of data stored in a database, typically using graphical software tools.
  61. Online transaction processing (OLTP)
    Immediate automated responses to the requests from multiple concurrent transactions of customers.
  62. Operational system
    The systems that are used to interact with customers and run a business in real time.
  63. Predictive analysis
    Business intelligence techniques focusing on identifying trends or predicting business outcomes.
  64. Query
    A method used to retrieve information from a database.
  65. Query by example (QBE)
    A capability of a DBMS that enables data to be requested by providing a sample or a description of the types of data the user would like to see.
  66. RDBMS
    A database management system based on the relational model.
  67. Record
    A collection of related attributes about a single entity.
  68. Report
    A compilation of data from a database that is organized and produced in printed format
  69. Report generator
    A software tool that helps users build reports quickly and describe the data in a useful format.
  70. Roll up
    To analyze data at less detailed levels of a certain dimension.
  71. Rule
    A way of encoding knowledge, typically expressed using an "if-then" format, within an expert system.
  72. Scheduled report
    A report produced at predefined intervals-daily, weekly, or monthly-to support the routine informational needs of managerial-level decision making.
  73. Semistructured data
    Data (such as clickstreams and sensor data) which does not fit neatly into relational database structures.
  74. Sequence discovery
    A data mining technique used to discover associations over time.
  75. Slicing and dicingĀ 
    Analyzing data on subsets of certain dimensions.
  76. Social network analysis
    A technique that attempts to find groups of people who work together, to find people who don't collaborate but should, or to find experts in particular subject areas.
  77. Soft data
    Textual news stories or other nonanalytical information.
  78. Stickiness
    A web site's ability to attract and keep visitors.
  79. Structured data
    Data (such as transaction data), which fit neatly into spreadsheets or databases.
  80. Structured query language (SQL)
    The most common language used to interface with databases.
  81. Table
    A collection of related records in a database where each row is a record and each column is an attribute.
  82. Tacit knowledge assets
    Knowledge assets that reflect the processes and procedures located in employee's minds.
  83. Text mining
    Analytical techniques for extracting information from textual documents.
  84. Unstructured data
    Data (such as audio an video data, comments on social networks, and so on) which does not have any identifiable structure.
  85. User agent
    An intelligent agent that automatically performs specific tasks for a user, such as automatically sending a report at the first of the month, assembling customized news, or filling out a web form with routine information.
  86. Visual analytics
    The combination of various analysis techniques and interactive visualizations to solve complex problems.
  87. Visualization
    The display of complex data relationships using a variety of graphical methods.
  88. Web content mining
    Extracting textual information from web documents.
  89. Web crawler
    An intelligent agent that continuously browses the web for specific information (used by search engines). Also known as a "web spider."
  90. Web usage mining
    An analysis of a web site's usage patterns, such as navigational paths or time spent.
  91. What-if-analysis
    An analysis of the effects hypothetical changes to data have on the results.

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