AP Psychology Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity

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GrantMorgan
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240705
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AP Psychology Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity
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2013-10-15 01:20:55
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Psychology AP Chapter
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Flash cards for AP Psychology Nature, Nurture, and Human Diversity chapter (AP)
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  1. environment
    every nongenetic influence from prenatal nutrition to the people and things around us
  2. behavior genetics
    study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior
  3. chromosome
    threadlike structures made of DNA molecules that contain the genes (23 from mom, 23 from dad)
  4. DNA deoxyribonucleic acid
    complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes
  5. genes
    biochemical units of heredity that make up the chromosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein
  6. genome
    complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes
  7. identical twins
    twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two - creating two genetically identical organisms
  8. fraternal twins
    twins who develop from seperate fertilized eggs - no more genetically closer than brothers and sisters, but they share the fetal environment
  9. seperated fraternal twins are...
    less alike that seperated identical twins
  10. Adopted children's personalities...
    do not resemble (have less traits) of adoptive parents and more of thier biological parent's traits.
  11. Genetics may influence...
    personality but parents influence attitudes, values, manners, faith, and politics
  12. temperament
    a person characteristic emotional reactivity and intensity
  13. heritability
    proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to a gene. ________ of a trait may vary, depending on a range of population and environment studied
  14. You never can say what...
    % of an individuals personality or intelligence is inherited.
  15. As environments become more similar...
    heredity as a source of differences becomes more important
  16. genes and environment
    work together - genes code for particular protien in response to environment
  17. interaction
    effect of one factor (environment) depends on another factor (heredity)
  18. NOT nature vs nurture...
    nurture VIA nature
  19. molecular genetics
    subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
  20. evolutionary psychology
    study of the evolution of behavior and the mind, using priciniples of natural selection
  21. natural selection
    principle that among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to future generations
  22. mutation
    random error in gene replication that leads to a change
  23. gender
    in psychology, the biologically and socially influenced characteristics by which people define male and female
  24. men = obsessed with...
    sex.
  25. men attracted to...
    youthful appearance
  26. women attracted to...
    healthy looking, mature, dominant, affluent
  27. nature selects the behaviors...
    that increase the likelihood of sending ones genes into the future
  28. Experiences...
    shape and develop brain's neural connections
  29. Stimulation of touch or massage...
    benefits premature babies and gets them to grow
  30. Optimal brain development occurs...
    in the early years.
  31. Neural tissue...
    changes over time. "use it or lose it"
  32. selection effect
    those who do something tend to seek out others who have same behavior (those that smoke find friends that also smoke)
  33. culture
    enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, values, and traditions shared by a group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next
  34. norms
    understood rules for expected and accepted behavior, prescribe "proper behavior"
  35. personal space
    the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
  36. individualism
    giving priority to ones own goals over group goals and defining ones identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identification -in a new culture, sense of self would stay intact -self contained, private -easily move from place to place, job to job -short term relationships
  37. collectivism
    giving priority to goals of ones group (often extended family or work group) and defining ones identity accordingly -shy in new groups -embarrassed easily -deep, stable attachments to friends and family -relationships are long-term -interdependant
  38. Child rearing...
    varies between cultures! -westerners=individualism -asian/africans=emotional closeness, school
  39. males and females are...
    very similar! 45/46 chromosomes are unisex!
  40. aggression
    physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt someone -men more aggressive, possibly due to jobs (hunting, fishing, warring)
  41. Gender influences may be influenced...
    genetically by sex chromosomes and sex hormones -your sex determined by 23 pair of chromosomes
  42. X-chromosome
    from mother, found in both men and women, females have 2, men have 1. one from each parent = female child
  43. Y-chromosome
    from father, found only in males, when paired with opposite chromosome from mother = male child
  44. testosterone
    most important of the male sex hormones. both males and females have it, but additional amounts in males stimulates growth of male sex organs in fetus and development of male sex characteristics in puberty
  45. If fetus exposed to extra testosterone...
    child can develop male appearing gentitals. -until puberty child will act more "tomboyish"
  46. role
    a set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
  47. gender roles
    set of expected behaviors for males and for females
  48. gender identity
    ones sense of being male or female
  49. gender typing
    the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role
  50. social learning theory
    theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
  51. gender schema theory
    theory that children learn from their cultures a concept of what it means to be male and female and that they adjust their behavior accordingly
  52. genes predispose both shared...
    humanity and individual differences
  53. as roles change over time, we...
    change with them
  54. we are products of our...
    genes and environments.

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